Suo - Mires and peat vol. 51 no. 3 | 2000

Tytti Sarjala, Seppo Kaunisto. Ectomycorrhizae in Scots pine seedlings at different trophic levels of a drained mire. A preliminary study.
Avainsanat: Ectomycorrhiza; ergosterol; peat nitrogen; Pinus sylvestris polyamines
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The mycorrhizal infection of the roots of four-year-old Scots pine seedlings was stud ied by analysing root ergosterol, endogenous polyamines, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium concentrations after two years in the field.The seedlings had been planted in a 25-year-old pine plantation on an originally treeless mire representing a wide peat nitrogen gradient.Common mycorrhizal types with Scots pine, such as Cenococcum Piloderma and Boletaceae types, and a number of unidentified types were found in the roots.The roots contained quite normal or a little lower levels of ergosterol than re ported elsewhere on tree roots in mineral soil forests.After two growing seasons in the field a positive correlation (r =0.584**)was found between the root ergosterol and peat nitrogen concentrations.The root ergosterol and spermidine concentrations correlated positively.This may be due to a more abundant physical presence of the fungal tissue which contains more spermidine than the other polyamines, or it may be due to a posi tive effect of the mycorrhizal fungi on the metabolic activity of the roots.
  • Sarjala, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Parkano Research Station, Kaironiementie 54, FIN-39700 Parkano, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Kaunisto, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Hala Rifaat, Károly Márialigeti, Gábor Kovács. Investigation on rhizoplane actinomycete communities of cattail (Typha angustifolia) from a Hungarian wetland.
Avainsanat: wetland; actinomycete; cattail; Hungary; rhizoplane; streptomycetes
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Wetlands play a special role in diverting plant materials towards fossilisation. These habitats are sinks for the atmospheric carbon: mineralisation of organic materials is inhibited by specific effects of the local N and S cycles, anaerobiosis, low pH, etc. It is not surprising therefore that microbial activity was detected to be highest in the rhizosphere of wetland plants. Cattail (Typha angustifolia L.) withstands extremely low soil redox values. Cattail root samples were collected in a floating mat at the Soroksár Arm of the River Danube. The root-tip regions were used for bacteriological studies. Using the plate-count technique an average of 3.3*104 CFU/g actinomycete rhizoplane count was detected. All actinomycete colonies were isolated, purified, and strains subjected to differential diagnostic analysis (phenotypical and chemotaxonomical tests). The dominant rhizoplane actinomycetes were: Streptomyces anulatus, and Str. albidoflavus, Micromonospora chalcea and M. carbonacea, Micrococcus luteus, Brevibacterium sp. and Gordona sp. Streptomycetes were characteristic for autumn sample, whereas the other actinomycetes dominated the rhizoplane microbiota early in the vegetation period. The ecological tolerance abilities of the members of dominant groups indicate that these bacteria might be active in the rhizosphere and can be present there in their vegetative forms.
  • Rifaat, Department of Microbiology, Eötvös Loránd University, Múzeum krt. 4/a., 1088 Budapest, Hungary Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Márialigeti, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
  • Kovács, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Piotr Ilnicki. Evaluation of nature reserves on wetland in the middle- west part of Poland.
Avainsanat: evaluation; nature reserve; Poland; wetland
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An inventory of wetlands in Poland was completed in 1994 and it opened the possibility of starting a planned supplementation of the reserve network on wetland.For this pur pose, it is necessary to carry out an evaluation of the existing objects.The studies include 52 existing and 72 planned nature reserves on wetland in the middle-west part of Poland (area of 33 600 km2 ).An original evaluation method uses seven criteria, which are evaluated in a three degree scale each.On this basis three classes (highest, medium, lowest value)were assigned.Only a small number of existing reserves are found in the extreme classes.In the highest class, there are only six nature reserves.In the lowest class there are small objects with little differentiated forest communities and high endangerment by degradation.A definite majority of the existing reserves are found on fens.Raised and transitional bogs are represented by a comparatively great number of small objects not exceeding 15 ha.The representativeness of the existing reserves in relation to the plant communities encountered on the wetland of this region is not the best one.
  • Ilnicki, Agricultural University Pozna , Department of Environmental Protection and Management, ul. D browskiego 159, 60-594 Poznan, Poland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Lars Elsgaard. Use of peat-soil for biological purification of ethylene contaminated air.
Avainsanat: microbiology; Bacteria; biofilter; ethylene; soil
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The gaseous plant hormone and air pollutant ethylene (C2H4) has a strong effect on plant physiological processes, such as ripening and senescence, and its removal is often required from contaminated air.This study tested the efficiency of indigenous microor ganisms in horticultural peat-soil to purify C2H4 contaminated air under biofilter condi tions.Peat-soil, acclimated to C2H4 removal, was placed in a biofilter (687 cm3) and subjected to an air flow (73 mL min–1 ) with ~117 ppm C2H4 (ppm, parts per million; equivalent to µL L–1 ).C2H4 was removed to a lowest level of 0.034 ppm after operation of the biofilter for 12 days at 26°C. This corresponded to a C2H4 removal efficiency of >99.9%and a specific C2H4 removal rate of 6.4 µg C2H4 g–1 dry wt soil h–1 (wt, weight). However, this efficient C2H4 removal was only transient (4 days), and during day 16 to 21, the C2H4 removal efficiency decreased to 51%. In contrast to this result, it was previously found that, under comparable biofilter conditions, cultivated ethylene-oxidizing bacteria were able to survive and efficiently remove C2H4 for at least 75 days. Thus, prolonged and efficient purification of highly C2H4 contaminated air by horticultural peat-soil under biofilter conditions apparently depended on bacterial inoculation.
  • Elsgaard, Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Crop Physiology and Soil Science, Research Centre Foulum, P.O. Box 50, DK-8830 Tjele, Denmark Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Roy Tomlinson, Laoise Davidson. Estimates of carbon stores in four Northern Irish lowland raised bogs.
Avainsanat: peat bulk density; peat carbon density; peat carbon stores
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Soils store more carbon (C) than does vegetation and in Northern Ireland peat has been estimated to account for about 42% of the soil C store. This estimate, however, was based on incomplete field evidence, including uncertainty on peat depths and peat bulk density. This paper aims to show how the estimate might be improved, taking into account bulk density and carbon density measurement. Trial 3-D models are presented to estimate total C content of individual bogs. Results suggest that C stores in northern Irish lowland raised bogs are lower than previously estimated primarily because of low bulk densities which showed no consistent increase with peat depth. Bulk density varied within and between bog profiles on the same bog and between bogs leading to different estimates of C stores. The research indicates a need for more precise modelling of bogs based on stratigraphy and dating of layers and a need for standardised measurement of peat bulk density and carbon storage. The findings, particularly if they apply to the extensive blanket bog, affect local and national totals of soil C stores and have implications for national policies on increasing/preserving C stores.
  • Tomlinson, School of Geography, The Queen’s University of Belfast, BT7 1NN, Northern Ireland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Davidson, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Alan Gilmer, Nicholas Holden, Shane Ward, Anthony Brereton, Edward Farrell. A model of organic matter accumulation in a developing fen/raised bog complex.
Avainsanat: peat; peatlands; mires; climate; Sphagnum productivity
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A mechanistic simulation model of organic matter accumulation for a developing fen/ raised bog complex in Ireland is presented.Parameter/variable values have been prima rily drawn from the published literature.The development of the theoretical considera tions of fen peat as a substratum to a raised bog is evaluated using the model.Terrestri alization is the pathway of hydroseral succession.The conceptual model treats peat growth as the accumulation of a series of parcels comprising both a labile and a non- labile component.The fen phase of the model uses a discrete description of organic matter accumulation while the raised bog phase uses a continuous description.Both phases use a constant decay rate.The model integrates changes in net primary produc tivity and aerobic decay to simulate four climatic periods.The model generates outputs for peat depth and mass with time and profiles of bulk density with depth.Results over a simulated period of 10 000 years demonstrate how changes in surface net primary productivity and aerobic decay can change the rate of peat accumulation in the develop ing fen/raised bog complex.Sensitivity analysis showed that the most important pa rameters influencing simulated depth and mass were the labile fraction in organic mat ter (raised bog)followed by net primary productivity (raised bog).The potential sig nificance of underlying fen peat as a proportion of the total depth and mass of a devel oping fen/raised bog complex was evaluated and shown to be substantially diminished after 5 000 years.It was established that the model predictions corresponded well with data for Irish Midland bogs and given suitable adjustment of values, could potentially simulate Fennoscandian conditions as well.
  • Gilmer, Department of Agricultural & Food Engineering (Peat Technology Centre), University College Dublin, Earlsfort Terrace, Dublin 2, Ireland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Holden, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
  • Ward, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
  • Brereton, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
  • Farrell, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Edyta Waniek, Jan Szatylowicz, Tomasz Brandyk. Determination of soil-water contact angles in peat-moorsh soils by capillary rise experiments.
Avainsanat: water repellency; apparent contact angle; capillary rise
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The liquid-soil contact angle indicates the wettability of a solid. This study was con ducted to determine the apparent water-solid contact angle in peat-moorsh soils located in the Biebrza River Valley using two indirect methods.One of them was the height of the capillary rise at the equilibrium, and the other was a dynamic capillary rise ap proach.The measured values of the contact angle ranged from 64.2 to 83.1 degrees using the equilibrium height of capillary rise approach, whereas for the dynamic capil lary rise method varied from 86.3 to 89.8 degrees.Comparison of the experimental results showed that the values of contact angles obtained using the dynamic capillary rise approach were about 12% higher than the values obtained from the capillary rise equation.The determined value of the apparent contact angle was affected by the gravi metric moisture content and bulk density.The contact angle values measured in peat- moorsh soils confirm that these soils exhibit some degree of hydrophobicity (water repellency)at all water contents and packed densities.
  • Waniek, Department of Environmental Development and Land Improvement, Warsaw Agricultural University, ul. Nowoursynowska 166, 02-787 Warsaw, Poland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Szatylowicz, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
  • Brandyk, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Ryszard Oleszczuk, Jan Szatylowicz, Tomasz Brandyk, Tomasz Gnatowski. An analysis of the influence of shrinkage on water retention characteristics of fen peat-moorsh soil.
Avainsanat: shrinkage; moisture retention characteristic; fen peat
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The paper presents the results of laboratory-and field-measured soil moisture retention characteristics for different layers in peat-moorsh soil developed from a fen.Field de termination was based on the measurements of the moisture content and pressure head values performed on undisturbed soil columns during a drying process.Laboratory measurements were performed with sand table and pressure chambers.In order to ob tain moisture retention characteristics related to actual volumetric moisture content, the shrinkage characteristics were measured for different soil layers.The comparison of the laboratory and field measured moisture retention characteristics showed that the results of field measurements were very close to those of laboratory measurements, expressed in terms of fictitious volumetric moisture content.This expression of water content based on initial soil volume provides a better estimation of differential water capacity.
  • Oleszczuk, Department of Environmental Development and Land Improvement, Warsaw Agricultural University, ul. Nowoursynowska 166, 02-787 Warsaw, Poland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Szatylowicz, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
  • Brandyk, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
  • Gnatowski, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Juhani Päivänen, Sakari Sarkkola. The effect of thinning and ditch network maintenance on the water table level in a Scots pine stand on peat soil.
Avainsanat: forest drainage; peatland; hydrology; ditch cleaning; complementary ditching; tree harvesting
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The effect of tree stand thinning and ditch network maintenance on the water table level was studied in an uneven-aged Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand growing on a drained dwarf shrub pine bog in southern Finland. The water table level was monitored once a week during the growing seasons (May–September) of 1991–1999. This time span is divided into the following treatment periods: calibration (1991–1992), thinning (1993–1994), ditch cleaning (1995), and proper ditch network maintenance (1996–1999). The growing season of 1995 was not included in the calculations because the ditch cleaning treatment failed. The layout included three thinning intensities (9.5, 15.0, and 28.1% removal of the initial stand volume) and an unthinned control. For the ditch maintenance treatment there was an additional control sample plot. The effect of the treatments on the water table level was evaluated both by a graphical approach and linear regression analysis. Only a slight, ecologically insignificant rise in the water table level was caused by the thinning cuttings. Ditch maintenance seemed to eliminate this change. It was concluded that in the planning stage, a careful evaluation of the real need of maintaining the ditch network (ditch cleaning or complementary ditching) should be done in connection with the first commercial thinning in order to avoid unnecessary costs.
  • Päivänen, Department of Forest Ecology, Box 24, FIN-00014 Helsinki University, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Sarkkola, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Bjørn Kløve. Effect of peat harvesting on peat hydraulic properties and runoff generation.
Avainsanat: peatlands; Drainage; runoff generation; hydrological pathways; hydraulic conductivity; shear strength; soil loss; subsidence; peak runoff
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Peat hydraulic conductivity, shear strength, plant composition and runoff at seven peat harvesting sites in Central Finland were measured. A large variation in hydraulic conductivity (10–8–10–6 m s–1 ), peat shear strength (302–413 kPa), and peak runoff (97–898 l s–1 km–2 ) was observed between different harvesting sites. The hydraulic conductivity showed a clear correlation with peat shear strength (r = –0.89), which has not been previously observed. The correlation between hydraulic conductivity and degree of humification was weak (r = 0.60). Soil lowering decreased the hydraulic conductivity and the peat shear strength. These reductions, with reduced drainage depths, increased peak flow and changed runoff generation patterns by increasing the possibility of Horton and saturation excess overland flow.
  • Kløve, Jordforsk, Norwegian Centre for Soil and Environmental Research, 1432 Ås, Norway Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Cécile Wastiaux, Lucien Halleux, René Scumacker, Maurice Streel, jean-Michel Jacqmotte. Development of the Hautes-Fagnes peat bogs (Belgium): new perspectives using ground-penetrating radar.
Avainsanat: raised bogs; ground-penetrating radar; Hautes-Fagnes
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A 800 ha area of drained peatlands in the Hautes-Fagnes (Belgium) was surveyed by means of a ground-penetrating radar and a global positioning system.The survey pro vided very accurate information about the subsurface relief and the thickness and extent of the peat deposit, as well as stratigraphical information and suggestions of possible links between subsurface, hydrology and present vegetation.
  • Wastiaux, Université de Liège, Station scientifique des Hautes-Fagnes, rue de Botrange, 137, B-4950 Robertville, Belgium Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Halleux, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
  • Scumacker, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
  • Streel, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
  • Jacqmotte, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Adam Bogacz. Physical properties of organic soil in Sto owe Mountains National Park (Poland).
Avainsanat: Stolowe Mountains; organic soils; peat deposit; physical properties; muck process
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The aim of this work was to determine physical properties of organic soils developed in different sites of the mountain area of Stolowe Mountains National Park, Poland. The profiles with different botanical composition of peat were analysed and classified by types and species of peat. Peat, muck and peat-mud were identified (9 profiles) at chosen locations. Investigation showed that top plateau organic soils were developed on a sandy-loam or sand weathered sandstone base. Organic soils in valleys and slopes were developed on a loamy-silt or clay basement. Peat horizons developed according to different types of sites (mesotrophic and eutrophic, sometimes oligotrophic). Generally, these soils are ombrotrophic, i.e. fed by atmospheric water only. These soils were classified as Fibric Histosols and Terric Histosols. Organic soils within the main regions of the park were over-desiccated, with advancing muck-forming processes being noted.
  • Bogacz, Institute of Soil Science and Agricultural Environment Protection, Agricultural University of Wroc aw 50-357 Wroc aw, ul. Grunwaldzka 53, Poland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Theodore Karyotis, Athanasios Haroulis, Evagelia Vavoulidou, Pericles Papadopoulos. Soil properties and distribution of heavy metals and boron within three Greek Histosols.
Avainsanat: heavy metals; boron; histosols; sequential extraction; soil subsidence
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Three Greek soil profiles originating mostly from lacustrine deposits in the district of Filippoi (Northern Greece), were studied. These soils have been formed both from organic and inorganic materials that were deposited by precipitation and developed through the action of aquatic organisms. According to Soil Taxonomy (1992), they are classified as Histosols and belong to the suborder of Saprists. The pH of the soil horizons ranged among soil horizons from 6.2 to 7.8. The total soil nitrogen content ranged between 7.5 and 17.0 g kg–1 and the soil organic matter was between 108.7 and 206.4 g kg–1 . Calcium carbonate was detected into ten horizons and ranged between 1.4 and 27.8%, whilst it was not found in five of the examined soil layers. This is suggested to reflect the presence or absence of aquatic organisms, the shells of which contain CaCO3 and enrich soil by means of weathering. Heavy metals extracted by 4 M HNO3 were in the following order Fe>Mn>Zn>Pb>Ni>Cu>Cd, and their average concentrations were 7190, 294, 72.3, 58.2, 33.3, 17.3 and 5.1 µg g–1 , respectively. The distribution of trace elements greatly differs amongst the examined samples and the range of the pseudototal form of Fe was 1873–18550 µg g–1 , of Mn 54.7–585, of Cu 4.5–40, of Zn 22.0–185, of Pb 20.5–143, of Ni 15–64.7 and Cd 3.3–6.9 µg g–1 . The sequentially extracted by Na2 -EDTA, HNO3 and NaOH were found to be the prevailing metal forms. Iron deficiency symptoms have been observed in certain crops, and manganese deficiency was also detected in some maize crops cultivated in slightly alkaline soils. Furthermore, the plant available boron concentration was determined, as deficiency symptoms were observed in some districts cultivated with sugar beets. The distribution was generally not influenced by soil properties, although a weak relationship between organic carbon and boron was found. Measures such as rational water management, tillage practices, and fertilization could be applied towards minimization of soil degradation, micronutrient disorders and optimization of crop productivity.
  • Karyotis, National Agricultural Research Foundation, Institute for Soil Mapping and Classification, 1 Theophrastou Str., 41335 Larissa, Greece Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Haroulis, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
  • Vavoulidou, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
  • Papadopoulos, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Michael Trepel, Torbjörn Davidsson, Sven-Erik Jørgensen. Quantitative simulation of biochemical processes in peatlands as a tool to define sustainable use.
Avainsanat: nitrogen; peatland; modelling; restoration; denitrification
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A natural property of mires is their ability to accumulate carbon and nutrients in the form of peat.Drainage and agricultural land use have changed the nutrient balance from accumulation to mobilisation.In this study, the effect of land use and hydrology on nitrogen dynamics is quantified using a GIS-based dynamic modelling approach.In the simulation, the nitrogen budget is controlled by drainage depth, land use type and fertilizer application.Denitrification is, next to harvest, the quantitatively most impor tant output pathway from peat soils with a predominant vertical water flow.Only for the wet Caricion elatae type was a net nitrogen accumulation simulated.The spatial visualisation of the nitrogen balance shows a high variability based on the heterogene ity of the peatland.Rewetting and extensivication can reduce the deficit in the nitrogen balance and lead to a slight increase of the accumulating area.These simulation results can be used in environmental planning to define a more sustainable land use in the future.
  • Trepel, Royal Danish School of Pharmacy, Section of Environmental Chemistry, Universitetsparken 2, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Davidsson, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
  • Jørgensen, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Léon Parent, Alain Viau, François Anctil. Nitrogen and phosphorus fractions as indicators of organic soil quality.
Avainsanat: pH; Soil quality indicators; nitrification; phosphorus fractionation; C/N/P/ S ratio
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The state of the environment is currently evaluated by indicators of air and water quality. Sustainable land use requires an assessement of soil quality. Soil quality indicators should relate soil processes to management practices. The supply of N and P contributes to crop productivity, but can degrade air and water quality. In this paper, we will present organic soil N and P attributes that can make up soil functions. Nitrate was the only detected mineral N form in organic soil materials with pH (0.01M CaCl2 ) exceeding 4.4. Lowest C/N ratio of cultivated sapric soil materials was 15, showing high nitrate-supplying capability. Total P concentration was between 760 and 1960 mg P kg–1 both in organic and inorganic forms when pH (0.01M CaCl2 ) increased above 4.7, the recommended minimum pH value for cultivated organic soils. Lowest C/P ratio as organic forms was 340 for sapric materials containing less than 22% ash, indicating organic P sequestration capability (C/P > 300). However, the low N/P ratio of 23 (i.e. 340/15) also indicated capability for organic P availability to plants. Since N and P are related to organic matter transformations, the C/N/P/S multiratios of selected organic matter fractions, analyzed as compositional data (computation procedure presented), need further consideration as integrated N and P attributes in combination with pH and climatic indexes, in order to adapt N and P diagnosis and recommendation models to specific organic soil agroecological zones.
  • Parent, Centre de Recherche en Géomatique, Laval University, Ste-Foy (Quebec), Canada G1K 7P4 Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Viau, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
  • Anctil, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo

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