Artikkelit jotka sisältää sanan 'wetland'

Florence Renou, Tom Egan, David Wilson. Tutkimuksia suonpohjien jälkikäyttömahdollisuuksista Irlannissa.
English title: Tomorrow's landscapes: studies in the after-uses of industrial cutaway peatland in Ireland.
Avainsanat: agriculture; Biomass; restoration; cutaway peatlands; forestry; wetland creation
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With the cessation of industrial peat harvesting, there is an opportunity to create new landscapes that can confer both socio-economic and ecological benefits. This paper reviews over 50 years of study in the after-use potential of industrial cutaway peatlands in Ireland. The options for after-use are determined to a large extent by the residual peat type, hydrological constraints, geographic location and economic considerations. Over the years, the main areas of investigation have included commercially driven options such as agriculture, forestry, and biomass production, as well as the more ecological and environmental options such as dryland recolonisation and wetland creation/restoration. In that time, the emphasis has continually changed as new research has emerged, in turn directing and shaping decision-making. By 2050, around 80000 ha of harvested peatlands will have become available for other uses. As such, a coherent post-harvesting strategy, underpinned by previous and future research, is essential in order to maximise the potential of these new ecosystems.
  • Renou, School of Biology and Environmental Science, Agriculture and Food Science Centre, University College Dubline, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Egan, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
  • Wilson, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Jarmo Laitinen, Sakari Rehell, Antti Huttunen, Seppo Eurola. Arokosteikot: ekologia, esiintyminen ja suojelutilanne Pohjois-Pohjanmaalla ja Kainuussa.
English title: Aro wetlands: ecology, occurrence and conservation in north-central Finland.
Avainsanat: Nature conservation; aapa mire; ecological gradient; Finnish mire site type system; groundwater; mire complex; peatland morpology; seasonal drought; wetland classification
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The present paper introduces and describes a poorly known wetland type – aro wetland – in well permeable mineral soil substratum in Northern Ostrobothnia and Kainuu (between 64° – 66° N lat.). Field observations (linked with the interpretation of aerial photographs) were made in 32 localities, whose conservation status is presented. We define boreal aro wetlands ecologically as a seasonal wetland type of their own which occur on well-drained mineral soil, which are mainly characterised by treeless, mire expanse fen vegetation and in which the peat accumulation is (almost) totally hampered by the vigorous decomposition of the organic matter resulting from an extremely unstable water regime (flood and seasonal drought) and small plant production. Aro wetlands in the western part of the study area occur on sandy substratum (the largest in parts of mire complexes split by ancient raised beach ridges), whereas in the eastern part the aro wetlands known so far are small pond-like depressions in till substratum. Carex lasiocarpa (mostly) dominates the vegetation on sandy substratum. Juncus filiformis and Carex nigra are typical, and Rhynchospora fusca and Molinia caerulea a bit rarer. Sphagnum cover is usually minimal. Considering aro wetlands an extreme case of suo (mire) makes the stability of water regime (stable – unstable) a direction of variation in the traditional Finnish mire site type system, which is based on several ecological gradients.
  • Laitinen, University of Oulu, Department of Biology, Botany, P.O.Box 3000, FI-90014, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Rehell, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
  • Huttunen, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
  • Eurola, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Hala Rifaat. Follow up characterisation of rhizoplane streptomycetes isolates of Cyprouspapyrus from an Egyptian wetland and their antimicrobial activities.
Avainsanat: wetland; rhizoplane; streptomycetes; antimicrobial activity; Egypt; papyrus
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The area of cultivated organic soils, and their distribution in Finland were estimated. The estimation was based on the soil classification data collected by three authorised soil testing laboratories, and the statistics of the arable land area. The data was collected in a five year period (1998-2002). During this period, over 90% of farms received environmental EU supplement and had their soils analysed. Therefore, the reliability of the estimation was now better than it used to be before Finland joined the European Union. In the Finnish soil classification system, organic soils are divided into two classes depending on their organic matter content. The area of organic soils with the organic matter content of 240% (dm) (i.e. peat) was 85000 ha, i.e. 3.8% of the arable area. The area of organic soils with the organic matter content of 20-39.9% (dm) and ofien with a mineral subsoil, was 214 000 ha i.e. 9.7% of the arable area. Altogether, the area of these soils was 300 000 ha i.e. 13.6% of the total arable area in Finland. Keywords: organic soil, peatland, mire cultivation, arable area, soil
  • Rifaat, Microbial Chemistry Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Hala Rifaat, Károly Márialigeti, Gábor Kovács. Investigation on rhizoplane actinomycete communities of cattail (Typha angustifolia) from a Hungarian wetland.
Avainsanat: wetland; actinomycete; cattail; Hungary; rhizoplane; streptomycetes
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Wetlands play a special role in diverting plant materials towards fossilisation. These habitats are sinks for the atmospheric carbon: mineralisation of organic materials is inhibited by specific effects of the local N and S cycles, anaerobiosis, low pH, etc. It is not surprising therefore that microbial activity was detected to be highest in the rhizosphere of wetland plants. Cattail (Typha angustifolia L.) withstands extremely low soil redox values. Cattail root samples were collected in a floating mat at the Soroksár Arm of the River Danube. The root-tip regions were used for bacteriological studies. Using the plate-count technique an average of 3.3*104 CFU/g actinomycete rhizoplane count was detected. All actinomycete colonies were isolated, purified, and strains subjected to differential diagnostic analysis (phenotypical and chemotaxonomical tests). The dominant rhizoplane actinomycetes were: Streptomyces anulatus, and Str. albidoflavus, Micromonospora chalcea and M. carbonacea, Micrococcus luteus, Brevibacterium sp. and Gordona sp. Streptomycetes were characteristic for autumn sample, whereas the other actinomycetes dominated the rhizoplane microbiota early in the vegetation period. The ecological tolerance abilities of the members of dominant groups indicate that these bacteria might be active in the rhizosphere and can be present there in their vegetative forms.
  • Rifaat, Department of Microbiology, Eötvös Loránd University, Múzeum krt. 4/a., 1088 Budapest, Hungary Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Márialigeti, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
  • Kovács, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Piotr Ilnicki. Evaluation of nature reserves on wetland in the middle- west part of Poland.
Avainsanat: evaluation; nature reserve; Poland; wetland
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An inventory of wetlands in Poland was completed in 1994 and it opened the possibility of starting a planned supplementation of the reserve network on wetland.For this pur pose, it is necessary to carry out an evaluation of the existing objects.The studies include 52 existing and 72 planned nature reserves on wetland in the middle-west part of Poland (area of 33 600 km2 ).An original evaluation method uses seven criteria, which are evaluated in a three degree scale each.On this basis three classes (highest, medium, lowest value)were assigned.Only a small number of existing reserves are found in the extreme classes.In the highest class, there are only six nature reserves.In the lowest class there are small objects with little differentiated forest communities and high endangerment by degradation.A definite majority of the existing reserves are found on fens.Raised and transitional bogs are represented by a comparatively great number of small objects not exceeding 15 ha.The representativeness of the existing reserves in relation to the plant communities encountered on the wetland of this region is not the best one.
  • Ilnicki, Agricultural University Pozna , Department of Environmental Protection and Management, ul. D browskiego 159, 60-594 Poznan, Poland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Peter Westermann. The effect of temperature on the metabolism of hydrogen and butyrate in a temperate swamp ecosystem.
Avainsanat: Methanogenesis; microbiology; wetland ecology
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The effects of substrate concentrations on temperature sensitivity of methanogenesis and butyrate metabolism was investigated in sediment slurries from a permanently waterlogged swamp. Temperature sensitivity decreased with decreasing substrate concentrations parallelling results obtained with axenic methanogenic cultures. H2 concentrations decreased with decreasing temperatures while the concentration of volatile fatty acids remained fairly unaffected by incubation temperature. The possibility of butyrate metabolism at in situ conditions was verified by temperature compensated thermodynamic calculations. Key words: Methanogenesis, microbiology, wetland ecology
  • Westermann, Dept. of General Microbiology, Univ. of Copenhagen, Solvegaden 83H, DK-1307 Copenhagen K, Denmark Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)

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