Suo - Mires and peat 42 (1991)

Mika Nieminen, Antti Pätilä. Ojitettujen rämeiden pohjaveden laatu ja sen riippuvuus turpeen kemiallisista ominaisuuksista.
English title: Groundwater quality and its relationship to peat chemical properties on drained pine mires.
Avainsanat: peatlands; peat nutrients; water chemistry
Tiivistelmä | Näytä lisätiedot | Artikkeli PDF-muodossa | Tekijät
The variation in groundwater nutrient concentrations from 29 oligotrophy pine mires were described. The relationships between groundwater chemistry and the chemical status of the surface peat layer were also investigated. The mean groundwater quality in different site type fertility groups was: pH 4.0-4.8; NH4+-N 0.45-0.80 mg l-1; P 0.06-0.15 mg l-1; K 0.27-0.54 mg l-1 ; Ca 1.40-3.78 mg l-1; Mg 0.49-1.67 mg l-1; Mn 0.01-0.12 mg I-1; Fe 0.69-3.20 mg l-1; Al 0.34-0.57 mg i-1; Zn 0.006-0.015 mg I-1; Na 0.63-1.91 mg l-1; B 0.008-0.010 mg l-1 and S 1.15-1.47 mg l-1. When ordered from the most infertile to the most fertile site types, groundwater pH and total concentrations of Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe and Na significantly (P < 0.001) increased. There was a large seasonal variation in the concentrations of S, K, Na, B and Zn, and a large within-plot variation in K, NH4+-N, P and B concentrations. The results indicated that factors other than the chemistry of peat were involved in determining the concentrations of these nutrients in the groundwater. Groundwater concentrations of Al, Fe, Ca and Mg, on the other hand, were found to be strongly correlated with the corresponding total nutrient concentrations in the surface peat layer. Keywords: peatlands, peat nutrients, water chemistry
  • Nieminen, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, P.O. Box 18, SF-01301 Vantaa, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Pätilä, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Irmeli Vuorela. Turvetutkimus Suomen asutushistorian selvittämisessä.
English title: Settlement history of Finland traced by means of microfossil analyses of peat deposits.
Avainsanat: peatland; archaeometry; charcoal particles; loss-on-ignition; pollen analysis; settlement history
Tiivistelmä | Näytä lisätiedot | Artikkeli PDF-muodossa | Tekijä
Information on early settlement history in SW Finland has increased considerably as a result of archaeometrical studies including pollen analysis, charcoal analysis and loss-on-ignition analysis of peat deposits, especially of Sphagnum peat. The results together with 14C-datings, show that the introduction of agriculture took place from the S-SW in the SW archipelago as early as 3600±90 BP (before present). This, however, does not explain the early pollen and charcoal dust evidence of cultivation in the Kainuu district where corresponding darings of 3680±90 BP have recently been obtained, or in Siilinjarvi where evidence of early cultivation around 3000 BP has also been recorded. Keywords: archaeometry, charcoal particles, loss-on-ignition, peatland, pollen analysis, settlement history
  • Vuorela, The Geological Survey of Finland, Betonimiehenkuja 4, SF-02150 Espoo, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Leena Finér. Lannoituksen vaikutus rämemännikon kasvuun ja rakenteeseen.
English title: Effect of fertilization on the growth and structure of a Scots pine stand growing on an ombrotrophic bog.
Avainsanat: bog; Drainage; increment; Pinus sylvestris; tree class
Tiivistelmä | Näytä lisätiedot | Artikkeli PDF-muodossa | Tekijä
NPK fertilization increased volume growth by 6.3 m3 ha-1 and PK fertilization by 4.3 m3 ha-1 within six years after nutrient application. The results indicate that dominant and co-dominant trees respond to fertilization better than suppressed ones, and that the trees close to the ditches benefit almost as much from fertilization as those in the middle of the strip. NPK fertilization also increased the mortality of the intermediate trees. Keywords: bog, drainage, increment, Pinus sylvestris, tree class
  • Finér, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Station, P. O. Box 68, SF-80101 Joensuu, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Seppo Kaunisto, Ari Ferm, Juhani Kokkonen. Suometsät ja niiden tutkimus Virossa ja Latviassa.
English title: Peatland forestry research in Estonia and Latvia.
Avainsanat: fertilization; peatland forestry; Drainage
Tiivistelmä | Näytä lisätiedot | Artikkeli PDF-muodossa | Tekijät
The authors visited Estonia and Latvia on 20-25.8.1990 in order to get acquainted with peatland forestry research and methods for increasing tree growth on cultivated peatlands, especially by using fertilization. The paper describes peatland forestry in general, paying special attention to the activities in the field of fertilization research on Estonian and Latvian peatlands. Keywords: Drainage, fertilization, peatland forestry
  • Kaunisto, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Parkano ResearchStation, SF-39700 Parkano, Finland. Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Ferm, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
  • Kokkonen, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Jyrki Kangas. Menetelmä metsäojitusvaihtoehtojen hyötyvertailuun.
English title: A method for utility comparison of forest drainage alter­natives.
Avainsanat: the Analytic Hierarchy Process; decision analysis; forest management planning; multiple-use planning
Tiivistelmä | Näytä lisätiedot | Artikkeli PDF-muodossa | Tekijä
In this study, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is applied to the planning of peatland forest drainage. The AHP is a decision analysis method which was developed for analysing complex decision situations with respect to the preferences of the decision-maker. Both quantitative and qualitative criteria can be dealt with. Due to its simplicity and flexibility the AHP is applicable to the analysis of practical decision problems. Besides using objective data, both the expertise and subjective opinion of the decision-maker can be utilized when forest drainage alternatives are evaluated. Keywords: the Analytic Hierarchy Process, decision analysis, forest management planning, multiple-use planning
  • Kangas, University of Joensuu, Faculty of Forestry, P.O. Box 111, SF-80101 Joensuu, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Klaus Silfverberg. Wood ash, PK-fertilizer and two soil ameliorating additives on drained pine mires.
Avainsanat: ash fertilization; peat; Finland; Scots pine; growth; needle analysis
Tiivistelmä | Näytä lisätiedot | Artikkeli PDF-muodossa | Tekijä
The study was made in four experimental fields on drained peatland in western Finland (63-66°N). One of the experiments was laid out in 1972; the others in 1978-1979. Treatments included different kinds of wood ash and PK-fertilizer, an ash-imitating mixture and apatite+biotite. Needle analyses and growth measurements were carried out in 1983— 1986. The concentrations of Mg and Mn generally decreased after fertilization. A rise in the foliar P, foliar K and foliar weight correlated with the growth response. Best growth increment was achieved with the ash-imitating mixture and PK-fertilizer, while apatite+biotite did not increase growth. In the first years after fertilization, growth on the ash plots was weaker, but later stronger or equal to growth on PK- and ash-imitating plots. The correlation between initial tree height and post-fertilization growth was similar on the different treatments. The poor growth increment on some ash treatments was probably due to the insufficient amount of nutrients in the ashes used. Key words: Ash fertilization, Finland, growth, needle analysis, peat, Scots pine
  • Silfverberg, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, P.O. Box 18, SF-0I301 Vantaa, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Pekka Salminen. Irlannin suot ja niiden suojelu.
English title: Irish mires and their conservation.
Avainsanat: Blanket bogs; Ireland; raised bogs
Tiivistelmä | Näytä lisätiedot | Artikkeli PDF-muodossa | Tekijä
Originally over 17 per cent of the land area of Ireland was covered by mires. The Irish and Scotch occurrences of blanket bogs are among the most important in the world. There have also been excellent raised bog areas especially in the low-lying central plateau of Ireland. Due to turf burning, peat extraction and drying of peatlands during hundreds of years, the occurrence of mires in their natural state is becoming rare. Only some 100 000 hectares of scientifically and conservationally valuable peatlands are remaining, which is less than 10 per cent of the total peatland area of the country. Increasing international and national pressures for mire conservation have forced the Irish government to define goals for national mire conservation. According to the programme, 10 000 ha of raised bogs (3.2% of the original raised bog areas) and 40 000 ha of blanket bogs (5.2% of the original blanket bog areas), as well as a couple of thousand hectares of the remnants of the rich open fens are to be preserved. Yet, there are not adequate preservation resources available. Only one-third of the mire protection goals have been achieved. Keywords: Blanket bogs, Ireland, raised bogs
  • Salminen, Ministry of Environment, P.O. Box 399, SF-00121 Helsinki, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Hannu Hökkä, Timo Penttilä. Suometsätieteellinen tutkimus Ruotsissa.
English title: Peatland forestry research in Sweden.
Avainsanat: Drainage; regeneration; Classification; nutrient status
Tiivistelmä | Näytä lisätiedot | Artikkeli PDF-muodossa | Tekijät
Former and present peatland forestry studies by the Department of Forest Soils of the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (Umeå) are presented, based on a tour to field experiments in north, mid and south Sweden. Up to the 1970s, major interest was paid to the nutrition of drained, originally treeless or sparsely treed fens and bogs. Several fertilization experiments since the first wood ash trials in Norra Hällmyren have indicated the necessity of P and K application to ensure afforestation and satisfactory growth of Scots pine on such sites. Silvicultural problems on drained peatlands, such as regeneration on highly productive peatlands, planting techniques, commercial thinnings, as well as gas exchange in peat and the distribution of nutrients in a peatland forest ecosystem are the focus of a large-scale project started in 1985. The preliminary results of the regeneration experiments, i.e. the effectiviness of spruce shelter wood (140-200 trees per ha) against frost damage during the growing season, are discussed. A brief description of the present classification and post-drainage site index system for peatlands is also given. Keywords: Classification, drainage, nutrient status, regeneration
  • Hökkä, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Rovaniemi Research Station, P.O. Box 16, SF-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Penttilä, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Seppo Kaunisto, Timo Viinamäki. Lannoituksen ja leppäsekoituksen vaikutus mäntytaimikon kehitykseen ja suonpohjaturpeen ominaisuuksiin Aitonevalla.
English title: Effect of fertilization and alder (Alnus incana) mixture on the development of young Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) trees and the peat properties in a peat cutover area at Aitoneva, southern Finland.
Avainsanat: Foliar nutrients; peat nutrients; peat thickness; root penetration
Tiivistelmä | Näytä lisätiedot | Artikkeli PDF-muodossa | Tekijät
The alder mixture and fertilization, both separately and especially together increased the growth of pine and the mass and length of roots, and decreased mortality of trees. Alder mixture increased the amounts of phosphorus and potassium in peat as compared to the alderless plots. The thickness of the peat layer (range 0.24-0.72 m) was negatively correlated with the growth of pine, the foliar P and K concentrations and the root mass and length. In no case were roots found in the peat layer closest to the subsoil. Obviously the peat layer should not be thicker than 30 cm, even if fertilized, for growing pine in a peat cutover area. Keywords: Foliar nutrients, peat nutrients, peat thickness, root penetration
  • Kaunisto, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Parkano Research Station, SF-39700 Parkano, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Viinamäki, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo

Click this link to register to Suo - Mires and peat.
Kirjaudu sisään
Jos olet rekisteröitynyt käyttäjä, kirjaudu sisään tallentaaksesi valitsemasi artikkelit myöhempää käyttöä varten.
Ilmoitukset päivityksistä
Kirjautumalla saat tiedotteet uudesta julkaisusta
Valitsemasi artikkelit