Artikkelit jotka sisältää sanan 'regeneration'

Florence Renou-Wilson, Minna Pöllänen, Kenneth Byrne, David Wilson, Edward Farrell. Koivun soveltuvuus suonpohjien metsittämisessä Irlannissa.
English title: The potential of birch afforestation as an after-use option for industrial cutaway peatlands.
Avainsanat: fertilization; Biomass; natural regeneration; downy birch; cutaway peatlands; sowing; shelter
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In the next few decades, industrial peat extraction will cease gradually over more than 80,000 hectares of cutaway peatlands in Ireland and alternative land uses will change the landscape of these areas. This study showed that substantial natural regeneration of downy birch (Betula pubescens) can occur on abandoned as well as cutaway peatlands afforested with conifers. Natural seedling birch stands measured in this study had an estimated biomass production of between 3100 and 5800 kg dry matter ha–1 year–1. This corresponded to an annual carbon stock increment estimated at between 1500 and 2900 kg C ha–1. Direct sowing experiments conducted in this study were the first of their kind in Ireland and showed that sowing downy birch and fertilization with P and K could be a possible management option for the after-use of cutaway peatlands. Exposure was the main obstacle to successful germination and artificial shelter led to higher rates of germination and survival of birch seedlings after the first winter. It can be concluded that birch (naturally or artificially established) can be a feature of this future landscape, bringing many attributes: nurse species, biomass, increased woodland cover and biodiversity.
  • Renou-Wilson, F. Renou-Wilson, School of Biology and Environmental Science, Agriculture and Food Centre, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4. Tel: +353 17167725; Fax: +353 17161102; email: Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Pöllänen, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
  • Byrne, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
  • Wilson, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
  • Farrell, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Elisabeth Groeneveld, Line Rochefort. Nursing plants in peatland restoration: on their potential use to alleviate frost heaving problems.
Avainsanat: Sphagnum; revegetation; regeneration; rehabilitation; colonisation; degraded mire; peat erosion
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Peatland restoration measures usually require the rewetting of the disturbed ecosystem. In northern latitudes, the increase in wetness of the bare peat substrate causes frost heaving. In this paper, we described the problem of frost heaving in cutover peatlands and an array of means whereby it can be diminished. Several avenues of research should be pursued with the use of nursing plants to reduce frost heaving and promote Sphagnum establishment and growth. For large scale restoration of peatland ecosystems, Polytrichum strictum appears to be a good potential nursing plant to Sphagnum. However the importance of competition between polytric and Sphagnum is unknown and we do not know under which conditions the association is beneficial or not.
  • Groeneveld, Groupe Recherche en Écologie des Tourbières and Centre d'Études Nordiques, Pavillon Paul-Comtois, Université Laval, Québec, Canada Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Rochefort, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Markku Saarinen. Kasvillisuuden ja maanmuokkauksen vaikutus männyn ja koivun taimettumiseen varpu- ja puolukkaturvekankaille.
English title: Effect of vegetation and site preparation on the restocking of Scots pine and birch in dwarf-schrub and Vaccinium vitis-idaea type peatland forests.
Avainsanat: peatlands; drainage areas; natural regeneration
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The study deals with the natural regeneration of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and birch (Betula pendula & B. pubescens) on ten experimental fields on peatland sites drained for forestry, mainly during the 1930s. The principal goal of the study was to investigate the effect of different types of natural ground vegetation on the restocking of pine and birch following site preparation (rotavation and mounding) on old drainage areas. Rotavation, which corresponds to disc trenching on upland forest soils, is capable of producing fully-stocked pine stands. The effect of surface treatments such as rotavation depends, however, on the predominant ground vegetation. Sphagnum moss patches are often well restocked even when not prepared, which means that site preparation often only has an effect on transformed Pleurozium and Dicranum vegetation. The success of rotavation has also encouraged forest owners to use other alternative methods of surface treatment such as mounding. The tree seedlings tend to be concentrated on the surface of the furrows produced by rotavation, which means that restricting digger-scarification to the topmost surface of the soil on well-drained regeneration sites can produce the same result; the required machinery is usually already present at the site for ditch network maintenance.
  • Saarinen, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Parkano Research Station, Kaironiementie 54, 39700 Parkano, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Bertalan Galambosi, Niilo Takkunen, Miroslav Repcák. Säännöllisen keruun vaikutus pyöreälehtikihokin satoon ja kasvuston uusiutumiseen.
English title: The effect of regular collection of Drosera rotundifolia in natural peatlands in Finland: plant density, yield and regeneration.
Avainsanat: regeneration; Drosera rotundifolia; collection; yield; environmentally sustainable collection method
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Yield potential and the effect of strict collection on the regeneration of natural populations of Drosera rotundifolia were studied in Finland during 1993-1999. Flowering plants were collected in July from 37 sample plots 1 m2 in size. Plant number, height of flowering plants, fresh weight as well as 7-methyljuglone, quercetin and kaempferol contents were determined. The average plant density was 45-56 plants m-2, and the average fresh weight was 6.3-6.7 g m-2 in the first and second years of collection. Regular and strict collection decreased significantly the population density. The average plant number in the third and seventh years ranged between 21 and 29 plants m-2. The collected fresh weight decreased respectively from 6.7g m-2 to 2.7g m-2. At the end of the vegetation periods the number of new seedlings averaged 188 m-2 on the observation plots, implying that the population may easily regenerate from the seed bank stock of the peat. According to the results of these experiments, the 4H organization elaborated a new, environmentally friendly collection programme for young collectors. The collectors were obliged to leave 5-10 flowering plants to spread seed and to assure natural regeneration of sundew populations.
  • Galambosi, Ecological Production, Resource Management, Agricultural Research Centre of Finland, FIN-50600 Mikkeli, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Takkunen, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
  • Repcák, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Hannu Hökkä, Art Groot. Katsaus viimeaikaisiin tutkimuksiin mustakuusen (Picea mariana) kasvatuksesta Pohjois-Ontarion turvemailla.
English title: Recent studies on black spruce management on peatlands in northern Ontario. A literature review.
Avainsanat: peatlands; succession; regeneration; stand management; Picea mariana; stand structure
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Black spruce (Picea mariana, (Mill.) B.S.P.) has been traditionally managed as evenaged stands with artificial or natural regeneration on peatlands of northern Ontario Clay Belt region. However, lack of resources to make artificial regeneration on all clear-cuts and harvest methods unfavorable for natural regeneration often resulted in unsatisfactory regeneration. As a consequence, alternative management methods have been introduced for peatland black spruce, and this literature review discusses studies of these methods. In natural stands, both evenaged and uneven-aged structures may be found, while the second-growth stands originating from old horse-logging are mostly uneven-aged, with abundant advance growth. Currently, mechanized harvest with regeneration protection has been shown to sufficiently preserve residual trees and subsequently produce stands that are heterogeneous with respect to the size structure. In second-growth stands, uneven-aged management can be implemented with minimum diameter limits determined from stand structure and cut-to-length harvesting. Such management perpetuates a stand structure appropriate for uneven-aged management. Simulation study has been made to estimate black spruce yield under uneven-aged management with varying cutting cycle and minimum diameter limit. It seems that in some peatland sites uneven-aged management is a possibility to manage black spruce.
  • Hökkä, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Rovaniemi Research station, P.O. Box 16, FIN-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Groot, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Markku Saarinen. Kasvupaikkatekijöiden vaikutus vanhojen ojitusalueiden taimettumiseen Kirjallisuuteen perustuva tarkastelu.
English title: Effect of site factors on restocking of old drainage areas. A literature review.
Avainsanat: peatlands; drainage areas; natural regeneration
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The rate of renewal of forests on drained peatlands in Finland will undergo a rapid rise in the near future as a large amount of these forests is approaching their renewal age. Indeed, forest renewal increasingly calls for familiarity with the special characteristics of peatland habitats. These special characteristics making them different from upland sites are primarily connected to hydrology, temperature conditions, nutrient status, and to changes in the composition of the ground vegetation. This literature review is focused on the effects of these site factors on the germination of tree seeds and the initial development of seedlings on different seedbeds. Key words: drainage areas, natural regeneration, peatlands
  • Saarinen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Parkano Research Station, Kaironiementie 54, FIN-39700 Parkano, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Hannu Hökkä, Timo Penttilä. Suometsätieteellinen tutkimus Ruotsissa.
English title: Peatland forestry research in Sweden.
Avainsanat: Drainage; regeneration; Classification; nutrient status
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Former and present peatland forestry studies by the Department of Forest Soils of the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (Umeå) are presented, based on a tour to field experiments in north, mid and south Sweden. Up to the 1970s, major interest was paid to the nutrition of drained, originally treeless or sparsely treed fens and bogs. Several fertilization experiments since the first wood ash trials in Norra Hällmyren have indicated the necessity of P and K application to ensure afforestation and satisfactory growth of Scots pine on such sites. Silvicultural problems on drained peatlands, such as regeneration on highly productive peatlands, planting techniques, commercial thinnings, as well as gas exchange in peat and the distribution of nutrients in a peatland forest ecosystem are the focus of a large-scale project started in 1985. The preliminary results of the regeneration experiments, i.e. the effectiviness of spruce shelter wood (140-200 trees per ha) against frost damage during the growing season, are discussed. A brief description of the present classification and post-drainage site index system for peatlands is also given. Keywords: Classification, drainage, nutrient status, regeneration
  • Hökkä, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Rovaniemi Research Station, P.O. Box 16, SF-96301 Rovaniemi, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Penttilä, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Markku Saarinen. Metsien uudistaminen vanhoilla ojitusalueilla.
English title: Forest regeneration in old forest drainage areas.
Avainsanat: transformed mires; Drainage; regeneration
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There are 150 000 hectares of mature stands and about 270 000 hectares of low-yielding stands in forest drainage areas in Finland. Most of them are on transforming or transformed peatlands. Conditions of these areas for forest regeneration differ from those of virgin and newly ditched peat-lands. The paper presents a review of studies in forest regeneration in old drainage areas. Also the needs for further research is discussed. Keywords: Drainage, regeneration, transformed mires
  • Saarinen, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Parkano Research Station, SF-39700 Parkano, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)

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