Artikkelit jotka sisältää sanan 'Sphagnum'

Cândida Mendes, Eduardo Dias. Azorien rahkasuot – esimerkkinä Terceira-saaren suot.
English title: Classification of Sphagnum peatlands in Azores — cases from Terceira Island.
Original keywords: suo; Azorit; Sphagnum; suotyyppi; suokasvillisuus
English keywords: Sphagnum; mire vegetation; peatland; Azores; mire inventory
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The aims of this study were to explore the mires (peatlands) in Terceira Island of Azores, invent their vegetation and ecology, and classify the mires to the ecological groups. In the field, totally 300 mires were identified and mapped, of which 58 were selected for the detailed analysis of this study. Physical, chemical, floristic, hydrological and geomorphologic data of the mires were collected in 1997–2004. The data were organized and analysed using ordination methods (CA). A detailed distribution map of the mires in the Island is presented. Three major mire site groups occurring in Azores were identified: (1) Basin mires; (2) Transition and raised mires and (3) Hillside and blanket mires. The profiles and the plant species of these site type groups are presented.
  • Mendes, Centro do Clima, Meteorologia e Mudanças Globais (C_CMMG) – CITTA. GEVA Intergraph Registed Laboratory, Departamento de Ciências Agrárias Universidade dos Açores. Rua Capitão João d’Ávlia – Pico da Urze 9700-042 Angra do Heroísmo Açores, Portugal Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Dias, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Meeri Pearson, Markku Saarinen, Juha Heiskanen, Tytti Sarjala, Jukka Laine. Kasvualustan kuivumisen vaikutukset rahkasaraturpeeseen istutettujen männyntaimien ensikehitykseen.
English title: High and dry: Consequences of drought exposure in Scots pine seedlings grown in authentic peat soil.
Original keywords: männyntaimet; Pinus sylvestris; kuivuus; rahkasaraturve; fotosynteesin tehokkuus (Fv/ Fm); mykorritsat; polyamiinit; juurten ja versojen kasvu
English keywords: drought; Fv/Fm; mycorrhizal colonization; Pinus sylvestris seedlings; poly-amines; root and shoot growth; Sphagnum-Carex peat
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Should the frequency of drought increase in boreal forests due to climate change, seedlings planted in prepared peat mounds could become more susceptible to soil desiccation. The resistance of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings to drought will thus be a key factor in the regeneration success of pine-dominated, forestry-drained peatlands. In this study, we evaluated the physiological, metabolic, and morphological responses of year-old seedlings gradually exposed to extreme drought in highly decomposed Sphagnum-Carex peat blocks. Drought clearly suppressed root and shoot growth as well as fractional colonization of ectomycorrhizal fungi. Sustained declines in photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) of previous-year and current-year needles did not occur until the volumetric soil water content had dropped to 30% and 10%, respectively. Polyamine analysis revealed that new needles are preferred in protecting the different parts of the seedlings against drought stress. Despite growth losses, the maintenance of rather high photochemical efficiency in current-year needles under severe water stress would appear to indicate a potential for seedling recovery if water availability in the peat improved. Given the high tolerance exhibited by Scots pine seedlings, death by drought seems a lesser concern.
  • Pearson, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Parkano Research Unit, Kaironiementie 15, FI-39700 Parkano, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Saarinen, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
  • Heiskanen, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
  • Sarjala, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
  • Laine, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Anna M. Laine, Kenneth A. Byrne, Gerard Kiely, Eeva-Stiina Tuittila. Vedenpinnan muutoksen lyhytaikaiset vaikutukset hiilidioksidi- ja metaanipäästöihin peittosuolla.
English title: The short-term effect of altered water level on carbon dioxide and methane fluxes in a blanket bog.
Avainsanat: Sphagnum; Drainage; peatland; methane; flooding; ecohydrology; photosynthesis; respiration; Racomitrium; Rhynchospora alba
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Peatlands play an important role in the global carbon (C) cycle, by acting as a large, long-term C sink. The C sink is sustained by a high water level that inhibits decomposition of organic matter. The C gas dynamics are therefore sensitive to changes in water level, and in climatically different years a peatland can vary from a sink to a source of C. We measured carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) fluxes from vegetation communities ranging from hummocks to low lawns in a blanket bog. After a one-year calibration period the water level was both lowered and raised experimentally and the changes in vegetation composition and gas fluxes were monitored during a further year. In all vegetation communities the water level drawdown increased the respiration rate and decreased methane emission; rising water level decreased respiration and increased methane emissions. The effect of altered water level on photosynthesis depended on species composition. Water level drawdown decreased photosynthesis in most communities; rising water level decreased the photosynthesis of hummocks species, and increased the photosynthesis of Rhynchospora alba.
  • Laine, Anna M. Laine, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland, P.O. Box 3000, 90014 University of Oulu, telephone: +358 8 5531521, email: Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Byrne, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
  • Kiely, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
  • Tuittila, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Elisabeth Groeneveld, Line Rochefort. Nursing plants in peatland restoration: on their potential use to alleviate frost heaving problems.
Avainsanat: Sphagnum; revegetation; regeneration; rehabilitation; colonisation; degraded mire; peat erosion
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Peatland restoration measures usually require the rewetting of the disturbed ecosystem. In northern latitudes, the increase in wetness of the bare peat substrate causes frost heaving. In this paper, we described the problem of frost heaving in cutover peatlands and an array of means whereby it can be diminished. Several avenues of research should be pursued with the use of nursing plants to reduce frost heaving and promote Sphagnum establishment and growth. For large scale restoration of peatland ecosystems, Polytrichum strictum appears to be a good potential nursing plant to Sphagnum. However the importance of competition between polytric and Sphagnum is unknown and we do not know under which conditions the association is beneficial or not.
  • Groeneveld, Groupe Recherche en Écologie des Tourbières and Centre d'Études Nordiques, Pavillon Paul-Comtois, Université Laval, Québec, Canada Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Rochefort, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Markus Hartman, Seppo Kaunisto, Klaus Silfverberg. Turpeen ominaisuudet ja kasvillisuus metsitetyn ja lannoitetun avosuon eri trofiatasoilla.
English title: Peat properties and vegetation along different trophic levels on an afforested, fertilised mire.
Avainsanat: Sphagnum; nitrogen; Carex; mineral nutrients; peat component; degree of humification; forest mosses
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Relationships between the peat nutrient concentrations and the degree of humification, the ground vegetation and the botanical composition of the peat were studied on an afforested, originally treeless mire with a wide nitrogen gradient. The afforestation was carried out in 1971 using spot sowing and spot fertilisation. A broadcast fertilisation experiment that involved six replicates with four treatments, (i) a control, (ii) PK (rock phosphate and KCl), (iii) PK+ B, Cu and (iiii) wood ash was established in 1981–82. The surface peat layers were sampled for nutrient analyses in 1995 and for peat type determinations in 1997. The ground vegetation was inventoried in 1995. In 1995, the peat total nitrogen concentration varied from 8.7 to 29.1 mg g-1 in the 0–5 cm peat layer. The total nitrogen, phosphorus and iron concentrations and the degree of humification in the peat were all positively correlated with the proportion of Carex components and with each other. The frequency of Sphagnum mosses correlated negatively but that of forest mosses positively with the peat total nitrogen concentration. Broadcast fertilisation with wood ash increased the concentrations of phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, manganese, boron, copper and zinc especially in the 0–5 cm peat layer but did not affect other peat properties or the ground vegetation.
  • Hartman, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Reseach Centre, P.O. Box 18, 01301 Vantaa Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Kaunisto, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
  • Silfverberg, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Alan Gilmer, Nicholas Holden, Shane Ward, Anthony Brereton, Edward Farrell. A model of organic matter accumulation in a developing fen/raised bog complex.
Avainsanat: peat; peatlands; mires; climate; Sphagnum productivity
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A mechanistic simulation model of organic matter accumulation for a developing fen/ raised bog complex in Ireland is presented.Parameter/variable values have been prima rily drawn from the published literature.The development of the theoretical considera tions of fen peat as a substratum to a raised bog is evaluated using the model.Terrestri alization is the pathway of hydroseral succession.The conceptual model treats peat growth as the accumulation of a series of parcels comprising both a labile and a non- labile component.The fen phase of the model uses a discrete description of organic matter accumulation while the raised bog phase uses a continuous description.Both phases use a constant decay rate.The model integrates changes in net primary produc tivity and aerobic decay to simulate four climatic periods.The model generates outputs for peat depth and mass with time and profiles of bulk density with depth.Results over a simulated period of 10 000 years demonstrate how changes in surface net primary productivity and aerobic decay can change the rate of peat accumulation in the develop ing fen/raised bog complex.Sensitivity analysis showed that the most important pa rameters influencing simulated depth and mass were the labile fraction in organic mat ter (raised bog)followed by net primary productivity (raised bog).The potential sig nificance of underlying fen peat as a proportion of the total depth and mass of a devel oping fen/raised bog complex was evaluated and shown to be substantially diminished after 5 000 years.It was established that the model predictions corresponded well with data for Irish Midland bogs and given suitable adjustment of values, could potentially simulate Fennoscandian conditions as well.
  • Gilmer, Department of Agricultural & Food Engineering (Peat Technology Centre), University College Dublin, Earlsfort Terrace, Dublin 2, Ireland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Holden, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
  • Ward, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
  • Brereton, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
  • Farrell, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Kimmo Tolonen, Goran Possnert, Högne Jungner, Eloni Sonninen, Jukka Alm. High resolution 14C dating of surface peat using the AMS technique.
Avainsanat: Sphagnum; peatlands; Moss increment dating; radiocarbon
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In an AMS (accelerator mass spectrometric) determination of 14C from moss-increment dated samples from a Sphagnum fuscum hummock, a clear peak representing the time of high 14C activity in the atmosphere due to nuclear bomb tests was found. The 14C activities in the peat profile at deeper levels, corresponding to the period down to 1600 BP, showed similar variations as the atmospheric values. The time-scale obtained from radiocarbon dating fitted well with results from moss-increment counting, pollen analysis and dendrochronological dating of a fire horizon. Using the bomb activity peak, the fraction of carbon emanating from deeper layers and refixed into growing peat was estimated. The fraction of soil carbon dioxide taken up by the contemporary Sphagnum sward was thus found to be in the order of 20%. Keywords: Moss increment dating, peatlands, radiocarbon, Sphagnum
  • Tolonen, Dept. of Biology, Univ. Joensuu, P.O. Box III, FIN-80101 Joensuu, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Possnert, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
  • Jungner, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
  • Sonninen, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
  • Alm, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Machteld C. Dierendock. Simulation of peat accumulation: an aid in carbon cycling research.
Avainsanat: Sphagnum; peatland; Meta-analysis; primary production
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Some preliminary results of a technique used to compare primary production and peat accumulation data mainly from published sources and the results of a peat accumulation simulation model are presented. Emphasis is on differences among micro-sites (hummock, lawn, hollow and pool) and among various Sphagnum species (S.fuscum, S. magellanicum, S. cuspidatum and S. balticum) associated with raised bogs. The primary production of lawns and pools were significantly greater than those of hummocks and hollows. Sphagnum balticum had the highest primary production (mean = 339 g m-2 a-1). Over 90% of the primary production of Sphagnum fuscum is accumulated while for the other Sphagnum species, the value is <50%. The data are used in a simulation model to show the influence on primary production of a doubling of rainfall over a 50-year period. Keywords: Meta-analysis, peatland, primary production, Sphagnum
  • Dierendock, Hugo de Vries Laboratory, University of Amsterdam, Kruislaan 318, J 098 SM Amsterdam, The Netherlands Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Deborah S. Eustis, Kimmo Tolonen. Tuhka-ajoitusmenetelmän ja sammalvuosikasvainajoituksen vertailu rahkamättäissä.
English title: A comparison of ash dating and moss-increment dating in Sphagnum hummocks.
Avainsanat: Sphagnum; peatlands; dating; mineral dust; surface peats
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A comparison of two methods for dating recent ombrotrophic peat hummocks was made at three mires. For depths approximately below 10 cm, acid insoluble ash dating gave greater ages than moss-increment dating; for depths above 10 cm, the methods showed more similar ages. The moss-increment dates were assumed to be generally correct since there was a good correlation between several independent dating results and moss-increment ages at one of the study sites. Despite the declining accuracy of moss-increment dating with depth, it should be the method chosen for dating recent peat in areas where the assumption of constant acid insoluble ash deposition is invalid. Increment dating is practically useful only in the moss hummocks, except for when the moss stems have been compressed into a horizontal position. Keywords: Dating, mineral dust, peatlands, Sphagnum, surface peats
  • Eustis, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Connecticut, P.O. Box U-42, Storrs, CT 06268, USA Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Tolonen, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Tapio Lindholm. Rahkasammalesta turpeeksi, A.K. Cajanderin erään vanhan näytesarjan tarkastelua.
English title: From living Sphagnum to peat: a re-analysis of old material collected by A.K. Cajander.
Avainsanat: Acrotelm; peat formation; Sphagnum growth
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The peat formation time scale in the acrotelm was evaluated using the rate of burial of the root collars and the tree age of buried Scots pine stems in the surface peat. The data were originally presented, but unanalysed, by A.K. Cajander (1906). During the first 30 years after the germination of pine seed the Sphagnum carpet above the root level increased its thickness without noticeable compression and decomposition. During the following 20-30 years the decomposition increased, but the growth of Sphagnum also decreased. A third phase began after 55-60 years during which the growth of Sphagnum was compensated by decomposition. Keywords: Acrotelm, peat formation, Sphagnum growth
  • Lindholm, Water and Environment Research Office (Nature Conservation), Water and Environment Research Institute, P.O. Box 250, SF-0010! Helsinki, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Keijo Lehtonen, Martti Ketola, Kirsti Haihu, Kalevi Pihlaja. Maatumisen vaikutus rahka- ja saraturpeista orgaanisilla liuottimilla uuttautuvan aineksen koostumukseen.
English title: Effect of humification on the composition of the solvent-extractable matter in Sphagnum and Carex peats.
Avainsanat: Sphagnum; Carex; humification; peat lipids
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Solvent-extractable matter of Sphagnum (S) and Carex (C) peats of different degrees of humification (S, H2-H8; C, H3-H8) were isolated, saponified and analyzed. The C peat material was found to contain more extract than the S peat (C, 9.3%; S, 5.9%, on average). In both peat series the extract content increased with increasing degree of humification. In both peats the unsaponifiable, non-volatile polymeric matter comprised the biggest part, nearly one half on average, of the saponified extracts, which also were analyzed for their lipid components and other volatile materials. These fractions accounted for over one third and nearly one fifth, respectively. The total amounts of all these three categories generally increased, as did those of the individual lipid groups, with increasing humification. However, the relative minimum of the polymers and the relative maximum of the analyzed lipid compounds were found in the samples of H4 in both peat series. Fatty and ω-hydroxy acids were the most abundant lipid groups, together accounting for 70-90% of the analyzed lipids. Sterols and 1-alkanols were clearly more abundant in the S peat. The relative amounts of the lipid groups did not show a distinct dependence on the degree of humification in either peat series. The individual lipid group compositions of both peat types were very similar although some exceptions were found. Keywords: Carex , humification, peat lipids, Sphagnum
  • Lehtonen, Department of Chemis­try, University of Turku, SF-20500 Turku, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Ketola, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
  • Haihu, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
  • Pihlaja, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Raimo Heikkilä, Markku Löytönen. Havaintoja rahkasammallajeista ja niiden suhteista kasvillisuuteen ja ympäristötekijöihin Bromarvin Östanberg Stormossenilla.
English title: Observations on Sphagnum species and their rela­tion to vegetation and ecological factors in Östanberg Stormossen, southern Finland.
Avainsanat: Sphagnum; mire vegetation; ecology; plateau bog; water content
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The relations between Sphagnum species, vegetation, and the macrotopographical and microtopographical environmental gradients of a plateau bog located on the southern coast of Finland were studied. A profile was levelled from the mire margin to the mire centre and 16 sample plots were located along the profile. The vegetation of each sample plot was described using coverage percentages. The mire water level, pH, and specific conductivity were measured for each plot. Samples of the capitula of different species of Sphagnum were taken and they were measured for water content. Hummock surfaces were predominant in the mire centre. The hollows were relatively dry ombrotrophic small sedge bogs. The mire margin fen was mostly mesotrophic. In the northern part of the mire there was also a eutrophic flark fen. In the mire centre the pH was 4 or less and the specific conductivity ranged from 10 to 25 µS/cm. In the mire margin fen the pH ranged from 4.7 to 5.7 and the specific conductivity was c. 50 µS/cm. The water content of the capitula of the Sphagna was in general high, ranging from 300 to 3000 %. In the hollows of the mire centre the water content of Sphagnum tenellum was as low as 15 %. Key words: mire vegetation, ecology, plateau bog, water content, Sphagnum.
  • Heikkilä, Department of Geography, University of Helsinki, Hallituskatu 11, SF-00100 Helsinki, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Löytönen, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Harri Vasander, Jorma Mikkola. Sammalpallomenetelmä lyijysulaton päästöjen tutkimuksessa.
English title: Monitoring lead emissions with moss bags near a lead smelter in southern Finland.
Avainsanat: air pollution; lead; monitoring; moss bags; Sphagnum
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Moss (Sphagnum) bags were used to study the deposition of lead near a lead smelter in Vantaa, southern Finland, during 1983—1986. Pit-furnace and refining smelting were carried out. However, in March 1984 pit-furnace smelting ceased. The content of lead in moss bags increased clearly with decreasing distance from the source. The values were clearly smaller after the change in smelting process. Besides the moss bag method we also compared moss bags with other methods (deposition, suspended particles, snow sampling). There existed highly significant correlations between moss bag and other methods. The moss bag method enables a dense monitoring net and was found to be a rapid, easy and inexpensive way of monitoring the intensity and distribution of lead pollution. Key words: lead, air pollution, monitoring, moss bags, Sphagnum.
  • Vasander, University of Helsinki, Department of Peatland Forestry, Unioninkatu 40 B, SF-00170 Helsinki, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Mikkola, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo

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