Suo - Mires and peat 45 (1994)

Rein Veski, Orru Mall. Viron soiden kemiallinen tutkimus.
English title: Chemical investigation of Estonian peat.
Avainsanat: peat chemistry; Estonia; peat technology
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Peat, alongside with oil shale, is one of the most important national energy resources of Estonia. Some 9836 peatlands cover 22.3 per cent of the Estonian territory. Peat resources exceed 2.37 billion tons. The chemical composition of Estonian peat was studied as early as in the 1920's. At the end of the 1930's some experiments on peat coking were carried out. Later on the chemical content of peat was studied by the Geological Survey of Estonia. An experimental plant for producing fodder yeast has been established, and attempts made to extract growth stimulators from peat. An experimental plant for the production of activated coal is under construction. Key words: Estonia, peat chemistry, peat technology
  • Veski, Peat Info Ltd., Söpruse 233-48, EE0034 Tallinn, Estonia Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Mall, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Mika Nieminen, Antti Pätilä. Puuston kasvu ja ravinteiden saatavuus turvemaiden vanhoilla kalkituskokeilla.
English title: The growth of Scots pine and the availability of nutrients in old Finnish liming experiments on drained peatlands.
Avainsanat: fertilization; tree growth; peat nutrients; Pinus sylvestris; needle nutrients
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Liming (with applications of 1 000 to 8 000 kg ha1) had no long-term (1929-1985) effect on the growth of Scots pine on drained oligotrophic peatlands. Liming plus NPK fertilization had a variable effect on the growth of the stands. The same treatment could result in a very different response in different experimental areas. Both liming alone and liming plus NPK fertilization increased the calcium, magnesium and nitrogen contents of peat and decreased the C/N ratio and acidity. Liming plus fertilization decreased needle boron and manganese and increased calcium and nitrogen concentrations. The results of peat and needle analysis indicated that the changes in nitrogen availability to trees caused by liming have not been sufficient enough to affect tree growth. It was also concluded that boron deficiency was the main reason for the lowered yield. Key words: fertilization, needle nutrients, peat nutrients, Pinus sylvestris, tree growth
  • Nieminen, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, P.O. Box 18, FIN-01301 Vantaa, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Pätilä, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Jyrki Hytönen. Lannoitemaaran vaikutus lyhytkiertoviljelmien ravinnetilaan ja biomassatuotokseen suonpohjilla.
English title: Effect of fertilizer application rate on nutrient status and biomass production in short-rotation plantations of willows on cut­away peatland areas.
Avainsanat: fertilization; biomass production; cut-away peatland; energy forestry; Salix
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The effects of N, P and K fertilizer application rates on the biomass production, soil properties and foliar nutrient status were studied in willow plantations (Salix x dasyclados, Salix 'Aquatica') established on cut-away peatland areas at Haapavesi (64 06'N, 25 36'E and Ruukki (64'27'N, 25 26'E). When the amount of one of the nutrients in NPK-fertilization was changed (N 0-200 kg/ha, P 0-60 kg/ha, K 0-80 kg/ha) the others remained unchanged (N 100, P 30, K 40 kg/ha). Three field experiments were made. Increasing phosphorus and potassium application rates increased the concentrations of corresponding soil extractable nutrients. There was a positive correlation between the fertilizer application rate and the concentrations of foliar nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. During the first growing season, the effect of nitrogen fertilization on biomass production was modest, but during the second growing season the yield of willows increased the most when fertilized with 100-150 kg N/ha. Although phosphorus fertilization increased yields, already the smallest amounts (15 kg/ha) resulted in biomass yields as high when applying the largest phosphorus fertilizer amounts (60 kg/ha). Potassium fertilization did not increase biomass production in any of the experiments. The highest total biomass yields after three growing seasons were 28-30 t/ha. Their compositions were as follows: 44% wood, 18% bark, 17% foliage, 16% roots, and 5% stumpwood. Key words: biomass production, cut-away peatland, fertilization, energy forestry, Salix
  • Hytönen, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Kannus Research Station, Box 44, FIN-69J 01 Kannus, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Leila Urvas. Rikki viljellyissä eloperäisissä maissa.
English title: Sulphur in cultivated organic soils.
Avainsanat: peat soil; mould soil; pH; Humus; extractable and total sulphur
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In mould soils the concentration of acid ammonium acetate extractable sulphur (SAAAc) was 33 mg/l on average and total sulphur (Stot) was 833 mg/l. Corresponding contents in peat soils were 45 and 1209 mg/l, respectively. Average extractability of sulphur was 4.2 % in mould soils and 3.7 % in peat soils. In both soil types the extractability was highest when pH was lowest. Increasing humus contents decreased slightly the extractability of sulphur. Key words: humus, mould soil, peat soil, pH, extractable and total sulphur L. Urvas, Agricultural Research Centre of Finland, Institute of Soils and Environment, FIN-3J600 Jokioinen, Finland
  • Urvas, Agricultural Research Centre of Finland, Institute of Soils and Environment, FIN-3J600 Jokioinen, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Kimmo K. Kolari. Neulasten ravinnepitoisuuksien vaihtelu männyn latvuksessa.
English title: Variation in Scots pine needle nutrient con­centrations in relation to position in crown and needle age.
Avainsanat: needle analysis; Pinus sylvestris; Crown position; nutrient variation
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Variation in nutrient concentrations in Scots pine needles in relation to crown position and needle age was examined at two drained peatland fertilization experiments. Samples were taken from plots which had received NPK fertilizer and from sites which had received only P fertilizer and are now suffering from potassium and phosphorus deficiency. In the NPK fertilized plots, potassium concentrations were the lowest in the needles of the uppermost branchlet and increased down the crown. On plots showing potassium deficiency the situation was the opposite. In both experiments phophorus, magnesium, iron, zinc, and boron concentrations decreased and calcium concentrations increased down the crown but in potassium and phosphorus deficient trees calcium and manganese concentrations decreased down the crown. In both experiments phosphorus, potassium, magnesium and boron concentrations decreased with needle age while calcium, iron and manganese concentrations increased. Zinc concentrations increased in NPK fertilized trees but decreased in potassium and phosphorus deficiency trees. Keywords: Crown position, needle analysis, nutrient variation, Pinus sylvestris
  • Kolari, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Box 18, FIN-0I301 Vantaa Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Risto Lauhanen. Kaivukaluston aiheuttamat puustovauriot kunnostusojituksessa.
English title: Tree damage caused by excavating machines in ditch network maintenance.
Avainsanat: forest drainage; excavator; ditch cleaning; work studies; backhoe; ditch digging; environmental protection
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An inventory of tree damage caused by five excavators, four backhoes and one small-size single-track backhoe was carried out in western Finland during the frost free season. The proportion of damaged trees was 1.1-2.4 % in tree stands ditched using backhoes and excavators, if the ditch lines had been opened in advance. The corresponding proportion caused by the single-track backhoe was 0.9%, if the ditch lines had not been opened in advance. The damage to tree stands was affected by the machine type, the work type and the width of the opened ditch line. Excavators caused more stem damage in the ditch cleaning than backhoes did (p<0.02). The mean distances of the damaged trees from the center line of the ditch were 226-264 cm on the work sites ditched using backhoes and excavators. The mean DBH of the damaged trees was 8-10 cm depending on work and machine type. The optimum width of the ditch line for the different machine types was assumed to be 400-500 cm when considering the growth losses of tree stand, the tree damage and the work productivity. Keywords: backhoe, ditch cleaning, ditch digging, environmental protection, excavator, forest drainage, work studies R. Lauhanen, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Kannus Research Station, FIN-69101 Kannus, Finland
  • Lauhanen, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Kannus Research Station, FIN-69101 Kannus, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Juha Heiskanen. Kaksiosaisten turvepohjaisten kasvualustojen vaikutus männyn paakkutaimien kasvuun.
English title: Effect of peat-based two-component growth media on the growth of containerized scots pine seedlings.
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One-year-old containerized scots pine seedlings (Pinus sylvestris L.) were grown in two-component growth media mixtures containing 75% (by volume) light, low humified Sphagnum peat and under an irrigation regime where the seedlings were abundantly reirrigated after -10 to -15 kPa matric potential was achieved in the growth media. The greatest seedling growth was in pure peat and in peat to which coarse perlite had been added. The poorest growth was in mixtures of peat and hydrogel and of peat and water repellent rockwool. Intermediate growth was found in peat to which fine perlite or water absorbent rockwool had been added. During drying in the range -2 to -90 kPa matric potential of the growth medium, the decrease in the net photosynthesis of seedlings at the bud formation phase was linear when aeration was not a restricting factor. During drying, the net photosynthesis was relatively large and was of a similar magnitude in pure peat and in peat to which coarse or fine perlite had been added. Significantly smaller net photosynthesis was observed in peat to which water repellent rockwool or water absorbent rockwool or hydrogel had been added. During drying under wet conditions (-1 to -4 kPa matric potential) when limited aeration was a restricting factor, the net photosynthesis increased linearly. Due to better aeration, the, net photosynthesis was higher in the mixture of peat and coarse perlite than in pure peat. Keywords: aeration, nutrients, photosynthesis, physical properties of soil, substrate, water retention J. Heiskanen, The Finnish Forest Research lnstitute, Suonenjoki Research Station, FIN-77600 Suonenjoki, Finland
  • Heiskanen, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Päivi Paasovaara. Kuusamon suokasvillisuus ja ojitustilanne.
English title: Mire site types and peatland drainage in Kuusamo, northern Finland.
Avainsanat: mire vegetation; Aapa mire area; draining for forestry; field survey; Peräpohjola
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The percentage distribution of mire site types on 49 random sample plots (1/4 km2) was studied in 1989. The line transect method was used, the total mire transect line on the sample plots being 100,6 km. The eight most common mire site types include different pine bog types (hummock level bogs/pine mires) and fens. Both poor fens and rich fens are more common in Kuusamo than in the Pohjanmaa aapa mires (southern aapa mires), the former ones taking 29% and the latter ones 8% of all mires. The percentage of spruce mires (6% ) is no more than a half of their percentage in the Pohjanmaa aapa mires. 32% of the peatlands studied were under the influence of drainage, mainly with open ditch networks for forestry. 16% of those were classified as recently drained, 73% as transitional, 5% as drained peatland forests and 6% as being influenced by drainage in the vicinity. Open fens and thick peated mire types have been drained to a lesser extent than forested mires and sites with mire margin effect. However, as only few mire site types are suitable for forestry in northern Finland, the risk of unprofitable drainage is high. Mire site types considered unsuitable for forestry even in the more favourable conditions of southern Finland take about 35% of the drained mires. Keywords: Aapa mire area, draining for forestry, field survey, mire vegetation, Peräpohjola
  • Paasovaara, Keskuskoulu B 7, FIN-86710 Kärsämäki, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)

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