Suo - Mires and peat 34 (1983)

Juhani Päivänen. Mustakuusen istutustaimikon alkukehitys ojitetulla karulla avosuolla.
English title: Initial development of planted Picea mariana on a drained nutrient poor open bog in Finland.
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The paper deals with the initial development of black spruce (Picea mariana) (Mill.) B.S.P., provenance St. John River Valley, New Brunswick, Canada), compared with that of native Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) in a planting experiment on a drained smallsedge bog in southern Finland during the first thirteen years since planting. The results of the experiment showed that the every growth paramenter of black spruce was somewhat lower than that of Scots pine. Partly, the slow growth may have been connected with the stagnation period common to Picea species in general after planting. Also the provenance of black spruce is probably not the most suitable one to the conditions in southern Finland. It is considered to be worth-wile to continue follow-up studies. Especially the different nutrient requirements of the two tree species may turn out only later.
  • Päivänen, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Tapio Lindholm, Harri Vasander. Soista, soiden käytöstä ja suoekologisesta tutkimuksesta Karjalan ASNT:ssa.
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The utilization of mires and some recent research results carried out in Soviet Karelia (ASSR), USSR are reviewed. Information concerning the utilization of mires for forestry and agricultural purposes, their value as a natural plant resource, and mire concervation are presented. The aims and results or the sturdies mostly carried out at the Kidasovo Field Station, are rewieved. Included are studies on medical plants, berry plants, primary production, peat microbiology, decomposition and forestry.
  • Lindholm, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Vasander, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Harri Vasander. Esimerkki keidassoiden ojitus- ja lannoitustoiminnan heikosta kannattavuudesta.
English title: The low profitability of draining and fertilizing sparsely tree covered ombrotrophic bogs for forestry purposes: a case study.
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The ombrotrophic raised bog Laaviosuo at Lammi, southern Finland, was studied to access the economics of draining and fertilizing sparsely tree covered bogs. Input and output were calculated using both real short-term values and hypothetical long-term values. The profitability was found to be low in both cases. Amelioration of this kind of bog may therefore be considered an uneconomic proposition.
  • Vasander, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Kimmo Tolonen. Turpeen lämpöarvon ja maatuneisuuden välisestä riippuvuudesta.
English title: The relationship between the calorific value and the humification of peat.
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Results concerning the relationship between the calorific value and the humification degree (von Post) of peat from 282 Finnish peat samples were compared with corresponding data published earlier. Differences were most striking within Sphagnum peats indicating that new (larger) material is desired. Other methods tested for measuring the past decomposition included the fiber (rubbed and unrubbed) content of peat, Pyavchenko's laboratory volume weight method, the centrifuge method, the pyrophosphate index and the colorimetric method by NaOH (using lengths 280, 472, 570 and 664 nm). The usability of these methods for an indirect prediction of the calorific value was found to vary from one peat type to another. The regression equations presented are based on too few samples and enable only rough estimations of peat calorific value.
  • Tolonen, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Tapio Lindholm. Rahkamättäiden sammalikon rakenteesta ja tiheydesta Laaviosuon keidasrameella.
English title: Variation in Sphagnum shoot numbers and shoot bulk density in hummocks of a raised bog.
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The shoot number of Sphagnum fuscum plants in hummocks was 42160 ± 12800 per m2 and the bulk density of the 10 mm shoot layer immediately below the capitulum level was 10.6 ± 3.3 g/dm3. The shoot number explained 36 % of the variation of bulk densities in different samples. There is a large variation in the size of individual shoots, shoot densities and shoot numbers in different parts of a Sphagnum fuscum hummock.
  • Lindholm, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Pauli Hänninen. Turpeen tiheyden, vesipitoisuuden, tuhkapitoisuuden ja lämpöarvon riippuvuus syvyydestä saravaltaisissa soissa.
English title: The effect of depth on dry density, water content, ash content and heating value of Carex peat.
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In sedge dominated peat deposits the dry matter content of peat is highest near the surface and degreases with increasing depth. The reason for this trend is the increase in water content of sedge peat with depth. The dry matter content is highest between the depths of 40 and 140 cm. The ash content is lowest and, accordingly, the heating value highest also within these depths.
  • Hänninen, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Hannu Mannerkoski. Käytännöllinen vedenpinnan mittauslaite.
English title: An audible buzzer apparatus for indicating water-table levels.
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The paper describes an apparatus for indicating the water level in ground water wells. It gives a sound signal whenever water completes the electrical circuit between the two leads of the probe. It is inexpensive and easy to use. The level of the water surface indicated by a piezoelectric buzzer thus leaving the user free to observe the depth scale.
  • Mannerkoski, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Jouni Tummavuori, Hannu Venäläinen, Timo Nyrönen. Termogravimetrian kaytto kiinteiden polttoaineiden tutkimuksissa. Osa VIII. Massan ja lampötilan nostonopeuden vaikutus kineettisten suureiden arvoihin.
English title: The usability of thermogravimetry in fuel research. Part VIII. The effect of mass and temperature rate on the values of kinetic quantities in the thermogravimetry.
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We have investigated the influence of the sample mass and the temperature rate on the values of thermogravimetric quantities. The substances used were powdered willow dust and calcium oxalate, since willow dust represents a relatively homogenous natural material whereas calcium oxalate is a very common reference material in thermogravimetric studies. The temperature rate was varied from 0.5 °C • min-1 up to 100 °C • min-1 and the masses were ranging from 10 mg to 420 mg. It is a widely adapted impression that a relatively large masses (several hundred milligrams) and a slow temperature rate (optimum 3 °C • min-1 give the best experimental repetition and correct results. We conclude, however, that the variation in sample masses and in temperature rate in this experiment had no significant influence on. the kinetic quantities computed. The deviations originate from the differences in the instrumental technique and this assesses a requirement for the improved instrumentation before the mathematical relationships between various quantities can be established. Furthermore, the neglible small effect of the reaction order on the kinetic quantities was observed. This was rather surprising, because it was only partly expected due to the formulation of the basic expressions.
  • Tummavuori, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Venäläinen, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
  • Nyrönen, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Erkki Timonen. Havaintoja auraus- ja kaivuriojien mitoista ja kunnosta soilla.
English title: The size and condition of ditches made by ploughs and tractor diggers in drained peatlands.
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Changes in the dimensions of ditches made by heavy ploughs or tractor diggers were followed during a 15 yearperiod after digging. The material consists of 102 experimental ditches (each 20 m in length) dug using either the plough or tractor digger method on four main site types. The results showed that the diminishing of the ditch dimensions was not significantly affected by the digging method, but rather by depth, water content and humification of peat. Vegetation completely covers the peat surfaces of ditches after 15 years. The worst hindrances for water movement are shrubs (Salix, Betula pubescens, B. nana), but also sedges (Carex rostrata) and mosses (Polytrichum) lower the efficiency of ditches. The cleaning of ditches made by either methods seems necessary approximately 20 years after digging.
  • Timonen, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Martti Lodenius. Ojitusten vaikutuksista kalojen elohopeapitoisuuksiin.
English title: The ef­fects of peatland drainage on the mercury contents of fish.
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The reasons for elevated mercury contents in lakes without any known mercury pollution are discussed and preliminary results about the effects of peatland drainage are presented. Measures increasing the humus content or the acidity of the lakes are assumed in increased the mercury contents of fish. Such measures are water regulation, ditching and drainage operations.
  • Lodenius, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Pekka Pakarinen, Erkki Häsänen. Suosammalten ja -jäkälien elohopeapitoisuuksista.
English title: Mercury concentrations of bog mosses and lichens.
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Relatively low Hg concentrations are reported from Finnish collections of Sphagnum fuscum (21—63 ppb) and Cladonia sylvatica (9—101 ppb). While the difference in concentrations was not significant between Sphagnum and Cladonia, much higher Hg levels (176—495 ppb) were found in the corticolous lichen Hypogymnia physodes.
  • Pakarinen, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Häsänen, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Jouni Tummavuori, Martti Aho, Sirpa Sironen. Turpeen ioninvaihto-ominaisuuksista. Osa III: Eräiden kasvuturpeiden ioninvaihto-ominaisuuksien vertailua ja jäädyttämisen vaikutusta siihen.
English title: On the ion-exchange properties of peat. Part III: Comparison of the adsorption properties of peat moss and the effect of freezing on the peat.
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The adsorption properties of peat mosses from different production areas and the effect of freezing on the adsorption properties have been studied. Though the number of the samples studied was limited, one can observe that the production area did not have a decisive effect on the properties studied. The ion-exchange capacity increases slightly with increasing degree of humification. If peat moss is used as substrate, the low degree of humification is an advantage because that kind of peat has physical properties for the purposes mentioned. Freezing has a small effect on the ion-exchange properties of peat. If the peat of high degree of humification is wetted and then freezed it's ion-exchange capacity increases slightly, but it has no conclusive significance on the ion-exchange properties and the retention of the nutrients on the peat. The accumulation of the radioactive strontium from the atmosphere to the peat may be due to the strong adsorption capability of that metal to the peat.
  • Tummavuori, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Aho, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
  • Sironen, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Jouni Tummavuori, Martti Aho. Pienitehoisen röntgenspektrometrin (5W), Spark I:n, soveltaminen turve- ja ympäristötutkimuksiin.
English title: A low-power X-ray spectrometer (5W) Spark 1 for peat and environmental research.
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We have investigated the suitability of the low-power X-ray spectrometer SPARK 1 to the determination of the trace elements. Thanks to the alternation we made to the sample cuvette the pressed samples can now be used and this improves the usability of the equipment. The best diluting and binding agents for the samples were teflon powder and potassium iodide. We made investigations using sewage sludge, bottom sediments of the lakes, fertilizer mixtures, pure moss peat and moss peat with various amounts of fertilizer added. The results were in accordance to the results obtained directly with AA-spectrophotometry with known addition method. The equipment suited well for the determinations mentioned above. The additional advantages are low power consumption, minimal scatterad radiation and no need of cooling water. These features replace the disadvantages due to the limited amounts of the elements that can be determined as well as the scattered radiation during copper determination.
  • Tummavuori, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Aho, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Jukka Laine. Ilmakuvatulkinta metsäojitusalueiden kunnon ja toimenpidetarpeiden arvioinnissa.
English title: Usability of air photo interpretation in drained peatland forest surveys.
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Factors affecting the accuracy of air photo interpretation are summarily dealt with in the paper as well as results of the rather few research projects concerned with the drained peatland forest surveys in Finland. Use of small-scale black and white photography for interpretation has not proved to be sufficiently accurate, whereas experiences on the use of large-scale colour transparencies have been more promising.
  • Laine, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)

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