Suo - Mires and peat 37 (1986)

Martin Zobel. Mätäs- ja painanneturpeen happi- ja lämpötilaoloista Kikeperan suolla Lounais-Eestissä.
English title: Aeration and temperature conditions in hummock and depression peat in Kikepera bog, south-western Estonia.
Avainsanat: peat; bog; hummock-depression variation; aeration; oxygen
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Aeration conditions in peat were studied in situ with the help of polycarbonate tubes filled with water and inserted into the soil at depths of 3—10, 13—20 and 28—35 cm. The study was carried out during the vegetation period 1986. Aeration conditions were more favourable in hummock peat, where the thickness of the better aerated layer was ca. 10 cm in June and September, and 20—30 cm in July and August. Aera-tion conditions in the upper 10 cm layer of depression peat only became favourable in July, while in deeper layers aeration conditions remained unfavourable. In September, after heavy rains, aeration conditions deteriorated in both hummock and depression peat. The oxygen content in mire water was higher in depression sites, which may be because of the inflow of surface water rich in oxygen. The temperature in the tubes was higher in upper layers of hummocks and deeper layers of depressions. In comparison with other sites (Filipendula forest type on gley soils, drained peat soils, hill pastures, pine forest on podzols), the aeration conditions in bog peat are considerably less favourable. Key words: peat, bog, hummock-depression variation, aeration, oxygen.
  • Zobel, Department of Botany and Ecology, Tartu State University Tartu 202400, Estonian SSR Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Harri Vasander, Jorma Mikkola. Sammalpallomenetelmä lyijysulaton päästöjen tutkimuksessa.
English title: Monitoring lead emissions with moss bags near a lead smelter in southern Finland.
Avainsanat: air pollution; lead; monitoring; moss bags; Sphagnum
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Moss (Sphagnum) bags were used to study the deposition of lead near a lead smelter in Vantaa, southern Finland, during 1983—1986. Pit-furnace and refining smelting were carried out. However, in March 1984 pit-furnace smelting ceased. The content of lead in moss bags increased clearly with decreasing distance from the source. The values were clearly smaller after the change in smelting process. Besides the moss bag method we also compared moss bags with other methods (deposition, suspended particles, snow sampling). There existed highly significant correlations between moss bag and other methods. The moss bag method enables a dense monitoring net and was found to be a rapid, easy and inexpensive way of monitoring the intensity and distribution of lead pollution. Key words: lead, air pollution, monitoring, moss bags, Sphagnum.
  • Vasander, University of Helsinki, Department of Peatland Forestry, Unioninkatu 40 B, SF-00170 Helsinki, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Mikkola, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Reijo Solantie. Suoyhdistymätyypeistä suhteessa ilmastollisiin ja hydrologisiin vyöhykkeisiin.
English title: The zonation of peatland complex types in relation to climatic and hydrological zones.
Avainsanat: peatland complex types; climatic and hydrological zones; zonation
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The zonation of peatland complex types and prevalence of peatlands are examined in relation to climatic and hydrological zones in northern Eurasia, particularly in Finland. Mutual coincidences were found in most cases and are considered causal. Climatic and hydrological factor gradients were in many cases steeper about the boundaries than within zones. Keywords: peatland complex types, climatic and hydrological zones, zonation.
  • Solantie, Meteorological Institute, PO. Box 503, SF-00101 Helsinki, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Erkki Eilavaara. Turpeen pientuotannon kartoitus.
English title: Inventatory of small-scale peat production.
Avainsanat: peat; production; technology
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The small-scale production of sod peat in Finland is, generally, production on farms for their own use. According to two postal questionnaires made by the Forestry Department of the Work Efficiency Association there were, in Finland, in 1980 77 and in 1984 136 small producers of sod peat. In the questionnaires, the production technology, economy, availability, conditions, areas and quantities of small-scale producers were identified. According to the questionnaires peat production on farms is mainly practised by using the farm's own labour and on their own or a hired production area. The larger part of small-scale production of peat is production of sod peat. Other peat products produced on farms are milled peat, agricultural peat and horticultural peat. Keywords: peat, production, technology.
  • Eilavaara, University of Helsinki, Department of Logging and Utilization of Forest Products, Unioninkatu 40 B SF-00170 Helsinki Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Kuiyi Zhao, Juhani Päivänen. Koillis-Kiinan suot ja niiden hyväksikäyttö.
English title: Peatlands and their utilization in northeast China.
Avainsanat: China; peatland complexes; peatland site types; peatland utilization
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Peatlands complexes, site type classification and utilization of peatlands in northeast China are reviewed. The number of mire plant species common to both Finland and northeast China is about 120. Peatlands have been reclaimed for agriculture for a long time, but amelioration for forestry is only in the beginning. However, the potential of peatlands for forestry after drainage is considered high. Keywords: China, peatland complexes, peatland site types, peatland utilization.
  • Zhao, Changchun Institute of Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, People's Republic of China Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Päivänen, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Riitta Korhonen. Turpeen balneologisista tutkimuksista ja käytöstä.
English title: Balneological studies and the use of peat.
Avainsanat: peat; medical geology; balneology
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Peat therapy has been used in Continental Europe with good results to treat rheumatic diseases, rheumatoid arthritis in particular, and also gynaecological and urological ailments. Peat preparations have also been used in the treatment of eye diseases and diseases caused by the Herpes virus. Peat balneology is studied in numerous balneological research institutes where minerals waters are also investigated. The physicochemical properties of peat are determined. The most important parameter to be taken into account when selecting bath peat appears to be the degree of decomposition. The degree recommended for Sphagnum peat is H6 — H8 and for Carex peat H8 — H10 measured on the von Post scale. The mean degree of decomposition of the bath peat used in the German Democratic Republic fluctuates, however, between H5 and H7 . The curative power of peat therapy is attributed to the thermophysical properties of peat, which allow the human body to become overheated, and to the special properties of the biologically active substances in the peat. Key words: peat, medical geology, balneology.
  • Korhonen, Geological Survey of Finland, Kivimiehentie 1, SF-02150 Espoo, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Kalevi Pihlaja. Turpeen biologi-sesti aktiivisista aineista ja niiden luonteesta.
English title: Biologically active substances in peat — is it possible to characterize them and their modes of action at the molecular level?
Avainsanat: peat therapy; biologically active substances; mode of action at the molecu­lar level
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A short review on biologically active substances in peat and their characterization is given. There is a clear need for further multidisciplinary research into use of peat as a chemical raw material. The material is based on a lecture presented at DGMT symposium "Operating Mechanisms of Peat Therapy" in Bad Alexandersbad, FRG, 1985. Key words: peat therapy, biologically active substances, mode of action at the molecular level
  • Pihlaja, Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, SF-20500 Turku, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Juha-Pekka Hotanen. Tuhka- ja NPK-lannoituksen lyhyen aikavalin vaikutuksista änkyrimatoihin kahdella vanhalla ojitusalueella Itä-Suomessa.
English title: Short-term effects of ash and NPK fertilization on Enchytraeidae populations in two old, drained peatland areas in eastern Finland.
Avainsanat: Enchytraeidae; NPK fertilization; ash fertilization; drained peatlands
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The short-terms effects of wood ash and NPK fertilizer on the population of Enchytraeidae worms in a drained spruce swamp and pine bog were studied. Both NPK fertilizer (300 kg/ha) and ash (3000 kg/ha) treatments reduced worm numbers at both sites, but the effects were slight compared to seasonal fluctuations. Temporal fluctuations in worm numbers were relatively smaller at the pine bog than at the spruce swamp. NPK fertilizer temporarily changed the relative vertical distribution while tha ash treatment did not. The effects upon worm biomass and respiration rate were similar as those for worm numbers . Key words: Enchytraeidae, NPK fertilization, ash fertilization, drained peatlands
  • Hotanen, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Station, Yliopistonkatu 7, SF-80100 Joensuu, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Kirsti Haihu, Hannu Etelämäki. Turvelajin mikroskooppisesta määrityksestä.
English title: Two microscopic methods for the determination of peat types.
Avainsanat: peat type; epidermic tissues; wet sieving; point frequency method; microscopy
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Preparation of peat samples, identification of tissues and estimation of constituents are important in microscopic determination of peat type. Two microscopic methods for determining peat type are described: a wet sieving method and a drying, pulverizing and KOH solution method. The wet sieving method does not involve a tissue-destroying base or acid treatment. In both methods slides are prepared from the peat suspension by pipetting and drying. The tissues are then identified under a microscope and checked by reference to literature and a slide collection. The amount of peat factors is estimated by the point frequency method. The wet sieving method is simpler and gives a higher proportion of better preserved tissues, making tissue identification more reliable. Key words: peat type, epidermic tissues, wet sieving, point frequency method, microscopy.
  • Haihu, University of Turku, Department of Chemistry, SF-20500 Turku, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Etelämäki, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Henry Schneider. Quebecin soista ja metsäojitustoiminnasta.
English title: Peatlands and forest drainage in Quebec, Canada.
Avainsanat: Quebec; forest drainage; site type classification
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The interest in peatland forestry in Quebec is increasing as the peatlands of the St-Lawrence valley are considered to have a good drainage response capacity A relatively important forest drainage project is being carried out on a practical scale. However, the lack of a practically oriented peatland classification system is an important drawback. This paper is an attempt to produce a preliminary classification system intended for practical peatland forestry. Keywords: Quebec, forest drainage, site type classification.
  • Schneider, University of Helsinki, Department of Peatland Forestry, Unioninkatu 40 B, SF-00170 Helsinki, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Raili Vesterinen. Puuta ja turvetta käyttävien lämpölaitosten päästöt.
English title: Emissions from wood and peat-fired heating plants.
Avainsanat: emissions; air pollution; wood firing; peat firing; combustion process.
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The use of wood and peat in small scale boilers (10 kW—10 MW), has increased because the price of oil has advanced. Further the acidification of environment caused by emissions of sulphur oxides has increased. Wood and peat with their small sulphur content are good fuels in this respect. Emissions of sulphur dioxide, hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides are not too high during good combustion process. If wood and peat is burnt in plants (1—10 MW), emissions of hydrocarbon and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are low. High emissions of tar, total hydrocarbon and PAH have been measured from combustion of wood and peat in small furnaces. The development of boilers to correspond better the properties of the fuels used may decrease significantly these emissions. Also the complete control of the whole combustion process helps to the emissions. The dust emissions of small plants can be decreased with flue gas collectors. The multicyclone has generally been used as the collector in this scale. Emissions of some metals depend on the fly ash separation efficiency. Key words: emissions, air pollution, wood firing, peat firing, combustion process.
  • Vesterinen, Technical Research Centre of Finland, Domestic Fuel Laboratory, P.O. Box 221, SF-40101 Jyväskylä, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Leila Urvas. Timotein (Phleum pratense) sinkkipitoisuus turvemaalla.
English title: The zinc content of timothy (Phleum pratense) grown on peat soil.
Avainsanat: Phleum pratense; zinc content; agriculture; peat soil; P/Zn
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The zinc contents of timothy grown on peat soils generally low in zinc were considerably raised by zinc fertilization, even when applied at the low rate of 550 g Zn/ha, in combination with other micronutrients. On peat soil groups with average extrac-table zinc contents of 0,60, 1,40 and 7,22 mg/1 the mean zinc contents of timothy before fertilization were 25,6, 27,1 and 28,9 and after fertilization 28,6, 34,8 and 36,4 mg/kg D.M., respectively. The corresponding increases were 11, 28 and 26 per cent. In general, the zinc contents of timothy in this study did not differ essentially from those measured elsewhere in Finland. Key words: Phleum pratense, zinc content, agriculture, peat soil, P/Zn.
  • Urvas, Agricultural Research Centre, Department of Soil Science, SF-3J600 Jokioinen, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
André-Jean Francez. Rahkasammalten pieneläimistö kahdella Ranskan Keskiylängölla sijaitsevalla suolla.
English title: Sphagnum microfauna in two peat-bogs of the French Massif Central.
Avainsanat: peat-bog; mire ecosystem; microfauna; French Massif Central
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The composition and the seasonal fluctuations of the Sphagnum microfauna in two peat-bogs of the Puy-de-Dôme (France) are described and the author attempts to show the importance of the dominant groups in the functioning of the peat-bog ecosystem. Key words: peat-bog, mire ecosystem, microfauna, French Massif Central
  • Francez, Station Biologique de Besse-en-Chandesse, B.R 45, F-63J70 Aubiére, France Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)

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