Suo - Mires and peat 40 (1989)

Gerd Lüttig. Soiden hyödyntämisen historiasta Euroopassa, erityisesti Saksassa.
English title: History of the utilization of peatlands in Europe with spe­cial reference to Germany.
Avainsanat: agriculture; Historical review; horticulture; mire utilization
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From pre-christian times peatland-use and attitudes towards peatlands in Germany have changed to a great extent. Agricultural use of the inhospitable peat bog terrain only developed after the fertile soil regions had been conquered in the so-called struggle for food production. Use for fuel production never reached the amount of peatland used for agriculture, and with the use of peat as a horticultural ameliorator at the beginning of this century, only a small portion of the peat area has been touched and is not larger than the area under nature conservation. With these changes, attitudes about the associated environmental impact have shifted enormously at the same time. Key words: Agriculture, historical review, horticulture, mire utilization
  • Lüttig, Chair of Applied Geology, University of Erlangen-Nurnberg, Schloßgarten 5, D-8520 Erlangen, BRD Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
T. Viraraghavan, G. N. Mathavan. Öljyn poisto turvesuodattimella.
English title: Oil removal using peat filters.
Avainsanat: peat; Adsorption; filtration; oil-in-water emulsion; oil pollution
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The use of peat for the treatment of oil-in-water emulsions is gaining attention as a simple, economical means of environmental protection. The horticultural peat produced by Premier Peat Company Limited was assessed for its potential in removing oil from five representative oil-in-water emulsions of different stabilities. The emulsions were passed through a 300 mm peat filter bed at a flow rate of 12, 48 and 300 ml/min. Each test was conducted for 8 hours of continuous filter run. The results indicated that an average oil removal efficiency ranging from 34 to 99% can be obtained in a peat filter depending upon the flow rate and the type of oil-in-water emulsions. Key words: Adsorption, filtration, oil-in-water emulsion, oil pollution, peat
  • Viraraghavan, Faculty of Engineering, University of Regina, Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada, S4S OA2 Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Mathavan, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Leena Finér. Ohutjuurten biomassa ja pituus ojitusalueen männikössä, koivu-mäntysekametsikössä ja kuusikossa.
English title: Fine root biomass and length in a pine, mixed birch-pine and spruce stand on a drained peatland.
Avainsanat: Drainage; Scots pine; hairy birch; Norway spruce; root systems
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The biomass of Scots pine fine roots (diam. <10 mm) averaged ca. 5 000 kg/ha and total length ca. 12 000 km/ha on a tall-sedge pine mire. In a herb-rich sedge birch-pine mire, Scots pine fine root biomass was ca. 800 kg/ha and hairy birch fine root biomass 2 000-4 000 kg/ha. The total length of fine roots were correspondingly ca. 3 000 km/ha and 4 000-7 000 km/ha. Norway spruce fine root biomass was 7 000-8 000 kg/ha with a total length of ca. 11 000 km/ha on a Vaccinium myrtillus spruce mire. The root systems were superficial; over 90% of the root biomass was in the uppermost 20 cm peat layer. The biomass of 1-10 mm diameter fine roots was larger than that of the <1 mm roots on all sites. In the case of root length, the situation was just the opposite. Keywords: Drainage, hairy birch, Norway spruce, root systems, Scots pine
  • Finér, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Station, P.O. Box 68, SF-80100 Joensuu, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Juha Saarinen. Kuivatus­lämpötilan vaikutus eri turvelajien uuttuviin pää- ja hivenravinteisiin sekä pH-lukuun.
English title: Effect of drying temperature on the extractable macro-and micronutrients and pH of different peat types.
Avainsanat: Extractable nutrients; peat chemistry; soil analysis
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Saarinen, J. 1989: Effect of drying temperature on the extractable macro-and micronutrients and pH of different peat types. (Tiivistelmä: Kuivatuslämpötilan vaikutus eri turvelajien uuttuviin pää- ja hivenravinteisiin sekä pH-lukuun. — Suo 40:149-153. Helsinki. ISSN 0039-5471 Increasing the drying temperature from 20 to 105°C decreased extractable iron and lowered pH but increased the extractable phosphorus. Changes in the extractability of other nutrients were negligible. The effect of drying temperature on different peat types was similar. Keywords: Extractable nutrients, peat chemistry, soil analysis
  • Saarinen, Agricultural Research Centre of Finland, Institute of Crop and Soil, Soil Science, SF-31600 Jokioinen, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Martti Aho, Pekka Korpelainen. Turpeen tärkeiden poltto­aineominaisuuksien nopea analysointi FT-IR-spektroskopian avulla.
English title: Rapid analysis of important fuel proper­ties of peat by FT-IR spectroscopy.
Avainsanat: peat; FT-IR spectroscopy; fuel analysis
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Several important fuel properties of peat were rapidly determined by FT-IR spectroscopy, using the multicomponent analysis program CIRCOM. The following correlations (r2) were found between FT-IR data and data obtained by traditional analytical methods, for 16 standard peat samples: calorific value 0.93, carbon content 0.95, volatiles 0.92 and nitrogen content 0.98. Determinations of hydrogen and ash contents in peat did not give satisfactory results (r2 = < 0.7). Keywords: FT-IR spectroscopy, fuel analysis, peat
  • Aho, Technical Research Centre of Finland, Fuel and Combustion Laboratory, P.O. Box 221, SF-4010! Jyväskylä, Fin­land Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Korpelainen, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Tapio Lindholm. Rahkasammalesta turpeeksi, A.K. Cajanderin erään vanhan näytesarjan tarkastelua.
English title: From living Sphagnum to peat: a re-analysis of old material collected by A.K. Cajander.
Avainsanat: Acrotelm; peat formation; Sphagnum growth
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The peat formation time scale in the acrotelm was evaluated using the rate of burial of the root collars and the tree age of buried Scots pine stems in the surface peat. The data were originally presented, but unanalysed, by A.K. Cajander (1906). During the first 30 years after the germination of pine seed the Sphagnum carpet above the root level increased its thickness without noticeable compression and decomposition. During the following 20-30 years the decomposition increased, but the growth of Sphagnum also decreased. A third phase began after 55-60 years during which the growth of Sphagnum was compensated by decomposition. Keywords: Acrotelm, peat formation, Sphagnum growth
  • Lindholm, Water and Environment Research Office (Nature Conservation), Water and Environment Research Institute, P.O. Box 250, SF-0010! Helsinki, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Kimmo Tolonen. Mitä suoarkistot voivat meille tulevaisuudessa kertoa?
English title: What would be the significance of peat archives in the future?
Avainsanat: Carbon balance; dating; fire; DDT; global warming; heavy metals; PAHs
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An attempt is made to predict the progress of mire palaeoecological research in the near future. The prognosis is made in the light of recent advances in the field. Examples of some multi-faceted topics are given. They include ancient climatic changes for understanding the present changes, the greenhouse-effect, problems and new innovations in dating, organic pollutants such as PAHs and DDT, heavy metals and related air pollutants, man-made radionuclides, initiation of peatlands, peat growth, and fire history. Keywords: Carbon balance, dating, fire, DDT, global warming, heavy metals, PAHs
  • Tolonen, Department of Biology, University of Joensuu, P.O. Box 111, SF-80101 Joensuu, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Kalevi Pihlaja. Turpeen kemiasta ja turpeesta kemiallisena raaka-aineena.
English title: Peat chemistry and peat as a chemical raw material.
Avainsanat: peat; Chemical refining; organic components
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Peat chemistry is an important field of research, both from the molecular and from the applications point of view. Peat consists of a wide variety of different organic components and groups of compounds with differing properties. For example, the so-called humic substances can bind to and form complexes with inorganic ions. The use of peat as a chemical raw material for many chemical products is technically possible. At the present, however, the cost of production from peat needs to be significantly lower than from more conventional sources (e.g. oil) in order to overcome the complications caused by its heterogeneity and high water content. Nevertheless, it can be expected that in the coming decades the value of peat not merely as an energy source but as a chemical raw material will be realized. Keywords: Chemical refining, organic components, peat
  • Pihlaja, Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, SF-20500 Turku, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Keijo Sahrman. Turve — suomalainen energianlähde.
English title: Peat — a national Finnish energy resource.
Avainsanat: peat; Finland; Energy; future developments
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Because of the lack of hydrocarbon fuels in the Finnish territory, peat plays a very important role as an indigenous energy resource. Some 5 per cent of the area of Finnish mires is estimated to be suitable for industrial peat harvesting. This area contains so much peat that at the present consumption rate it would suffice for 400 years. In the foreseeable future industrial peat use, most of which will be for energy production purposes, could grow by 50-100 per cent compared with present use. Such development will depend, however, upon economic competition from other energy sources and pressure related to the environmental aspects of peat harvesting and use. Keywords: Energy, Finland, future developments, peat
  • Sahrman, Association of Finnish Peat Industries, Kuokkalantie 4, SF-40420 Jyskä, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Kosti Ranta. Turveteollisuuden näkymät 1940-luvulla.
English title: The peat industry in the 1940s.
Avainsanat: peat; Energy
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Fuel peat production in Finland has usually been tied in with fuel crises in the world market. After the Second World War the most severe crisis was in 1945, when 98% of the country's energy consumption was supplied by indigenous fuels. The increase in coal imports in the late 1940s caused difficulties in the marketing of peat. Between 1945 and 1955 a law enabled the production and use of fuel peat to increase. The intention was not to solve the whole energy need of Finland with peat but to ensure the lives of people during those difficult times. Today we have a large peat production capacity, efficient power plants, and a high level of peat research in Finland. Keywords: Energy, peat
  • Ranta, Sammonkatu 8B 57, SF-40100 Jyväskylä, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Reijo Heikkilä. Soiden maataloudellinen merkitys nyt ja tulevaisuudessa.
English title: Peatlands in Finnish agriculture now and in the future.
Avainsanat: agriculture; peat soil; peatlands; peat cultivation
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While approximately 10% of agriculture in Finland is still carried out on peat soils, the area involved is decreasing faster than the area of mineral soils. However, the large reserve of peatlands in Finland may become important in the future for agricultural production as a result of global climatic warming which would move the best agricultural areas northwards. Keywords: Agriculture, peat cultivation, peat soil, peatlands
  • Heikkilä, Society of Peat Cultivation, Karelia Research Station, SF-82600 Tohmajärvi, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Arvi Valmari. Suot sodanjälkeisessä asutustoiminnassa.
English title: Peatlands in the postwar colonization.
Avainsanat: agriculture; colonization; peatland cultivation
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After the Second World War appreciable areas of land in Finland were cleared for cultivation to replace cultivated fields lost in the war, in order to reach self-sufficiency in food production and to satisfy the need for land. The clearance of unproductive fens in northern Finland enabled the preservation of an equivalent area of productive forest in the central and southern parts of the country. One hectare of forest saved in this way can be estimated to have produced 160 m3 of wood from 1949 to the present time. The colonization of Salla district in northern Finland is discussed in detail. The area of cultivated land increased by a factor of 12.3 during 1945-1969. The clearance remained unfinished, however, so that only a few of the farms reached the planned size and settlement remained smaller than intended. Nevertheless, information to date does not give any indication of cattle being given up any more rapidly on the colonization farms than on the old farms. The area of peatland as a part of the whole cultivation has decreased but peat is still an essential feature in the agriculture of Lapland. The abundant supply of humus throughout the land is largely due to the peat. The greenhouse effect could increase the value of the northern peatlands. Keywords: Agriculture, colonization, peatland cultivation
  • Valmari, Mäkiranta 2-4B 9, SF-96400 Rovaniemi, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Viljo Puustjärvi. Kasvuturve alkuvaiheistaan nykyhetkeen.
English title: The role of peat in horticulture up to the present.
Avainsanat: peat; Cultivation; horticulture
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After the Second World War greenhouse culture became more and more widespread in the industrialized countries and the need for effective plant substrates gave rise to a new industry. Peat rapidly established itself as the most important substrate for horticultural purposes. The extensive peat resources in Finland meant that peat culture soon became the dominating culture medium in Finnish greenhouse culture. Nowadays, however, water culture is becoming more and more popular. Keywords: Cultivation, horticulture, peat
  • Puustjärvi, Riihikallio, SF-04320, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Rauno Ruuhijärvi. Soidensuojelun kehitys Suomessa.
English title: The development of mire preservation in Finland.
Avainsanat: peatlands; Nature conservation
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The preservation of Finnish mires effectively started in 1965 when the Finnish Association for Nature Protection and the Finnish Peatland Society formed a joint committee for mire protection. This committee, chaired by the author, produced a conservation programme primarily for state-owned lands, comprising altogether 209 protection areas in different vegetation zones of Finland. Consequently, the majority of the areas suggested came under the jurisdiction of the National Board of Forestry. In 1976, a new working group was established by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry to assess the scientific basis of peatland protection and to prepare a comprehensive national programme for preserving Finnish mires. Most of the members of the previous committee were able to participate in the activities of the new working group. In 1979 and 1981 the Finnish Government approved in principle the basic protection plans which included approximately 600 mires covering a combined area of 0.5 Mha. In addition, national parks and strict nature reserves contain about 0.2 Mha of mires. The objective is to preserve ca. 7% of the original area (10 Mha) of Finnish peatlands. During the 1980s, some 400 000 ha of mire preservation areas have been established on state-owned land, while about 85 000 ha of privately-owned mires (included in the conservation programme) still remain unprotected. There is a clear need to complete the mire conservation programme, especially in southern Finland. Keywords: Nature conservation, peatlands
  • Ruuhijärvi, University of Helsinki, Department of Botany, Ecological Laboratories, Fabianinkatu 24A, SF-00100 Helsinki, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Seppo Eurola, Rauno Ruuhijärvi. Soiden vyöhykejaon kehittyminen 1950-luvulla.
English title: Abstract: The concept of regionality in Finnish peatlands: a historical perspective up to the 1950s.
Avainsanat: Finland; Historical review; mire complex types
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The first regional division of Finnish peatlands was purposed by A.K. Cajander in the beginning of the century. It was based on vegetation, mire morphology, and landscape topography. The division was, however, difficult to compare with forest vegetation regions. As a result Prof. Aarno Kalela, in the 1950s, organized a study concerning the regionality of peat-land vegetation; the field work for which was performed by the authors as students. In this new division mire complex types and their regions were determined on the basis of vegetation but named according to mire morphology. The ecological approach to Finnish mire types also made it easier to compare them with peatland vegetation world-wide. Keywords: Historical review, mire complex types, Finland
  • Eurola, Department of Botany, University of Oulu, Linnanmaa, SF-90570 Oulu, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Ruuhijärvi, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Allan Antola. Metsänparannuksella aikaansaadun tuloksen turvaaminen metsäojitusalueilla.
English title: Confirmation of the results of forest amelioration of drained peatland forests.
Avainsanat: peatlands; Drainage; silviculture
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Approximately half of the original area of Finnish peatlands, 10 Mha, have been drained for forestry. In addition slightly less than 1 Mha of paludified mineral soil have been drained. The drained area comprises approximately one quarter of the present total forest area in Finland and the current growth of tree stands on drained peatland forests is steeply increasing. Thus the increase in the annual growth increment due to forest amelioration is presently c. 8 Mm3 and increasing by several percent each year. While this trend is welcome a third of drained peatland area already needs urgent additional drainage and silviculture management if it is to continue. Keywords: Drainage, peatlands, silviculture
  • Antola, Central Forestry Board Tapio, Maistraatinportti 4A, SF-00241 Helsinki, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Peitsa Mikola. Suot Suomen metsätaloudessa.
English title: Peatlands in Finnish forestry.
Avainsanat: forest drainage; peatlands
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Up to the present 5 Mha of peatland, i.e. 50% of the total peatland area of Finland, have been drained for forestry. The annual growth of peatland forests has increased from 6 Mm3 in the 1920s up 15 Mm3 in the 1980s, which is 22% of the total annual growth of the country's forests. To maintain the drainage systems, about 40 000 km of ditches should be cleaned annually. Silvicultural management of tree stands on peatlands is another urgent task in the near future. Keywords: Forest drainage, peatlands
  • Mikola, Department of Silviculture, University of Helsinki, Unionin-Icatu 40 B, SF-00170 Helsinki, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Jukka Laine. Metsäojitettujen soiden luokittelu.
English title: Classification of peatlands drained for forestry.
Avainsanat: drained peatlands; Classification; vegetation
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In the Finnish classification of drained peatlands in practical forestry, the post-drainage successional plant communities of recently drained areas have been traditionally classified according to their original mire site type (33 different types in forestry use), whereas the more stable communities of older drainage areas have been classified into so called "drained peat-land forest types" (4 types). This system is not firmly based on ecological factors or forestry requirements. The classification would be more logical and operational in forestry, if the successional plant communities of younger drainage areas already were classified into the drained peatland forest types. The paper describes seven such drained peatland forest types: herb-rich type, Vaccinium myrtillus type (I) and (II), Vaccinium vitis-idaea type (I) and (II), dwarf-shrub type and the Cladina type, which have their parallels in the series of upland forest types. The traditional V. myrtillus and V. vitis-idaea types have each been divided into two types; type (I) develops from genuine, forested mire types and type (II) from treeless and sparsely forested composite types. The proposed classification is supported by tree stand and peat property data presented in the paper. Keywords: Classification, drained peatlands, vegetation
  • Laine, Department of Peatland Forestry, University of Helsinki, SF-00170 Helsinki, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Markku Saarinen. Metsien uudistaminen vanhoilla ojitusalueilla.
English title: Forest regeneration in old forest drainage areas.
Avainsanat: transformed mires; Drainage; regeneration
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There are 150 000 hectares of mature stands and about 270 000 hectares of low-yielding stands in forest drainage areas in Finland. Most of them are on transforming or transformed peatlands. Conditions of these areas for forest regeneration differ from those of virgin and newly ditched peat-lands. The paper presents a review of studies in forest regeneration in old drainage areas. Also the needs for further research is discussed. Keywords: Drainage, regeneration, transformed mires
  • Saarinen, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Parkano Research Station, SF-39700 Parkano, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Juha-Pekka Hotanen. Korpirämeet ja karut korvet suomalaisissa suoluokitusjärjestelmissä.
English title: The place of spruce-pine mires and oligotrophic spruce mires in Finnish peatland site type classifications.
Avainsanat: Drainage; succession; mire classification; site type; trophy
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In Finland three different mire classification systems can be distinguished: 1) those for ecological purposes based on detailed botanical surveys, 2) those for scientific forestry research purposes, and 3) more extensive systems for practical forestry purposes. All systems are based upon Cajan-der's site-type principle whereby habitats which are ecologically similar are considered to support a similar vegetation. The classification (site type names, analogy/correspondence, nutrient status level) of spruce-pine mires and oligotrophic spruce mires according to the above-mentioned systems is compared. Some criticism concerning especially the confusing naming of the same type is presented. The varying post-drainage suc-cession in these site type groups is also discussed. Finally an attempt to distinguish the more oligotrophic spruce-pine mires from the less oligotrophic ones is made. Keywords: Drainage, mire classification, site type, succession, trophy
  • Hotanen, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu Research Station, P.O. Box 68, SF-80101 Joensuu, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Jukka Matilainen. Ojitusalueiden puunkorjuun ja metsänparannustöiden yhteensovittaminen.
English title: Combining of logging and forest improvement measures on forest drainage areas.
Avainsanat: Drainage; peatland; forest amelioration; harvesting
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The paper is partly based on a practical instruction procedure to combine harvesting and forest amelioration measures on forest drainage areas. It is simply a scheme of order and schedule presented in a table, the purpose of which is to serve as a guide for planning the order and timing of harvesting and forest amelioration practices. In efficient peatland forestry it is necessary to be aware of all the operations that will be required early in the planning phase which presupposes cooperation between different organizations. In the future, with the increase of additional drainage and ditch maintenance, the presented schedule (or similar working model) must be followed in order to avoid bad results in peatland forestry. Keywords: Drainage, forest amelioration, harvesting, peatland
  • Matilainen, Forestry Board of Eastern Häme, Vesijärvenkatu 9D, P.O. Box 110, SF-15141 Lahti, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Eero Paavilainen. Satakunnan suometsien kehitys vuosina 1977-1987.
English title: The development of peatland forests in Satakunta Forestry Board District between 1977 and 1987.
Avainsanat: forest drainage; inventory; peatland forests
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The development of peatland forests over a 10-year-period (1977-1987) in Satakunta Forestry Board District, Western Finland, is presented, based on the results of the 7th and 8th National Forest Inventories. Over this period the amount of peatlands classified as forest land (MAI over bark over a 100 years rotation ≥ 1 m3ha-1) and the total volume and increment of peatland forests considerably increased, mainly as a result of drainage. Keywords: Forest drainage, inventory, peatland forests
  • Paavilainen, Finnish Forest Research Institute, P.O. Box 18, SF-01301 Vantaa, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Juhani Päivänen. Rämemäntyalkuperien kehityksestä kangasmaalla.
English title: Development of mire originated Scots pine on mineral soil.
Avainsanat: peatland; Hereditary; mire; Scots pine; stand development; stem form
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Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) transplants (2+1+1 or 1+2 years old), the seeds of which had been collected from mire pines in different localities of South Finland, were planted in the early 1930s in a sandy Vaccinium site type at Tuusula (60°22´ N; 25°00´ E), north of Helsinki. The sample plots have been measured several times. At the time of the latest inventory the stands were about 50 years old. The stand development (standing volume, volume increment, dominant height, stem form) has been compared with the local mineral soil stands. The results show that seeds originated from mire pines produce offspring with form and growth (phenotypes) similar to those of pines originating from mineral soil. Keywords: Hereditary, mire, Scots pine, stand development, stem form, peatland
  • Päivänen, Department of Peatland Forestry, University of Helsinki, Unioninkatu 40B, SF-00170 Helsinki, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)

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