Artikkelit jotka sisältää sanan 'Cultivation'

Merja Myllys, Marko Sinkkonen. Viljeltyjen turve- ja multamaiden pinta-ala ja alueellinen jakauma Suomessa.
English title: The area and distribution of cultivated organic soils in Finland.
Avainsanat: peatland; soil; organic soil; mire cultivation; arable area
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The area of cultivated organic soils, and their distribution in Finland were estimated. The estimation was based on the soil classification data collected by three authorised soil testing laboratories, and the statistics of the arable land area. The data was collected in a five year period (1998-2002). During this period, over 90% of farms received environmental EU supplement and had their soils analysed. Therefore, the reliability of the estimation was now better than it used to be before Finland joined the European Union. In the Finnish soil classification system, organic soils are divided into two classes depending on their organic matter content. The area of organic soils with the organic matter content of ≥40% (m/m) (i.e. peat) was 85000 ha, i.e. 3.8% of the arable area. The area of organic soils with the organic matter content of 20-39.9% (m/m) and often with a mineral subsoil, was 214 000 ha i.e. 9.7% of the arable area. Altogether, the area of these soils was 300 000 ha i.e. 13.6% of the total arable area in Finland.
  • Myllys, Maa- ja elintarviketalouden tutkimuskeskus MTT, Maaperä ja ympäristö 31600 Jokioinen Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Sinkkonen, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Bertalan Galambosi, Zsuzsanna Galambosi, Miroslav Repcák. Eri viljelymenetelmien ja ruokinnan vaikutus turvepenkeissä kasvatettujen kihokkien kasvuun ja vaikuttavien aineiden tuotokseen.
English title: Growth, yield and secondary metabolite production of Drosera species cultivated in peat beds in Finland.
Avainsanat: peat; Drosera rotundifolia; yield; Drosera anglica; cultivation methods; regular feeding; 7-methyljuglone
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Cultivation experiments on D. rotundifolia and D. anglica were carried out in peat beds in Mikkeli, South Finland (61°44’ N, 27°18’ E) in 1992-1997. Plants were propagated by direct sowing and transplanting of small seedlings in peat beds (size 3 m2, depth 0.7 m) filled with non-fertilized peat (pH 4.0). Seed germination, growth, flowering cycle as well as fresh herb and seed yields were measured. To increase the growth, plants were regularly fed milk powder. The 7-methyljuglone, quercetin and kaempferol contents of the flowers, leaves and stems were determined from sown and transplanted, fed and non-fed Drosera plants. Both Drosera species were successfully cultivated in peat beds. Direct sowing in autumn followed by natural winter stratification seemed to be the best propagation method. Flowering started after the second and third growing years. Feeding the plants milk powder increased growth by 27-113%. The fresh yield during the third, fourth and fifth years ranged between 0.05 and 0.9 kg m-2, being highest in the first and second harvest years. Plant density decides the yield of small-sized species. The average yield was about 50 times higher in peat beds than in the nature. Feeding milk powder did not affect the secondary metabolite contents. The 7-methyljuglone content was 13-81% higher in the fed Drosera rotundifolia plants than in the non-fed ones. The quercetin and kaempferol contents were lower in the fed plant, 10-30% and 1-10% lower in D. rotundifolia and 30-60% and 1-15% lower in D. anglica, respectively. According to the results, it seems to be possible to grow Drosera rotundifolia and D. anglica under controlled conditions outside the natural ecosystem. The results also suggest that higher yields can be expected by cultivation of these species.
  • Galambosi, Ecological Production, Resource Management, Agricultural Research Centre of Finland, FIN-50600 Mikkeli, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Galambosi, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
  • Repcák, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Reijo Heikkilä. Soiden maataloudellinen merkitys nyt ja tulevaisuudessa.
English title: Peatlands in Finnish agriculture now and in the future.
Avainsanat: agriculture; peat soil; peatlands; peat cultivation
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While approximately 10% of agriculture in Finland is still carried out on peat soils, the area involved is decreasing faster than the area of mineral soils. However, the large reserve of peatlands in Finland may become important in the future for agricultural production as a result of global climatic warming which would move the best agricultural areas northwards. Keywords: Agriculture, peat cultivation, peat soil, peatlands
  • Heikkilä, Society of Peat Cultivation, Karelia Research Station, SF-82600 Tohmajärvi, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Arvi Valmari. Suot sodanjälkeisessä asutustoiminnassa.
English title: Peatlands in the postwar colonization.
Avainsanat: agriculture; colonization; peatland cultivation
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After the Second World War appreciable areas of land in Finland were cleared for cultivation to replace cultivated fields lost in the war, in order to reach self-sufficiency in food production and to satisfy the need for land. The clearance of unproductive fens in northern Finland enabled the preservation of an equivalent area of productive forest in the central and southern parts of the country. One hectare of forest saved in this way can be estimated to have produced 160 m3 of wood from 1949 to the present time. The colonization of Salla district in northern Finland is discussed in detail. The area of cultivated land increased by a factor of 12.3 during 1945-1969. The clearance remained unfinished, however, so that only a few of the farms reached the planned size and settlement remained smaller than intended. Nevertheless, information to date does not give any indication of cattle being given up any more rapidly on the colonization farms than on the old farms. The area of peatland as a part of the whole cultivation has decreased but peat is still an essential feature in the agriculture of Lapland. The abundant supply of humus throughout the land is largely due to the peat. The greenhouse effect could increase the value of the northern peatlands. Keywords: Agriculture, colonization, peatland cultivation
  • Valmari, Mäkiranta 2-4B 9, SF-96400 Rovaniemi, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Viljo Puustjärvi. Kasvuturve alkuvaiheistaan nykyhetkeen.
English title: The role of peat in horticulture up to the present.
Avainsanat: peat; Cultivation; horticulture
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After the Second World War greenhouse culture became more and more widespread in the industrialized countries and the need for effective plant substrates gave rise to a new industry. Peat rapidly established itself as the most important substrate for horticultural purposes. The extensive peat resources in Finland meant that peat culture soon became the dominating culture medium in Finnish greenhouse culture. Nowadays, however, water culture is becoming more and more popular. Keywords: Cultivation, horticulture, peat
  • Puustjärvi, Riihikallio, SF-04320, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)

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