Suo - Mires and peat 44 (1993)

Heikki Veijalainen. Fyto-2H-valmisteen vaikutus männyn neulasten ravinnepitoisuuksiin suometsissä.
English title: Effect of Fyto-2H-fertilizer on nutrient concentrations in pine needles Scots in peatland forests.
Avainsanat: needle analysis; liming; Fertilizer; Pinus silvestris; wood ash
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A granular calcium and wood ash mixture (Fyto-2H-fertilizer) increased foliar, K and B and decreased Zn after two growing periods in Pinus silvestris stands. It had also a positive effect on needle mass (d. m.), but not as pronounced one as the PK-fertilizer for peatland forests. It was concluded that Fyto-2H-product can increase the nutrient contents, which have been observed to be essential for the state of health in peatland forests. Further it contains slowly soluble portions of Ca and Mg, which have been proved to be very often the growth limiting factors e.g. in disturbed forests in Central Europe. Keywords: Fertilizer, liming, needle analysis, Pinus silvestris, wood ash
  • Veijalainen, Department of Forest Ecology, The Finnish Forest Research Institute P.O. Box 18, FIN-01301, Vantaa Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Luca Bragazza. Kasvukautiset vaihtelut pohjois-italialaisen suon vesikemiassa.
English title: Seasonal changes in water chemistry in a bog on the Southern Alps.
Avainsanat: bog water; cations; evapotranspiration; precipitation; seasonal variation
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Concentrations of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium were periodically measured in precipitation and in pool water in a bog on the Southern Alps during the 1991 vegetative season. A simple model was established for calculating theoretical concentrations of those cations in bog water, taking into account the effect of potential evapotranspiration. The actual concentrations of cations in bog water were then compared with the theoretical ones and this allowed to define different seasonal patterns of cation concentrations. Sodium accumulated in bog water with respect to precipitation, to an extent far exceeding the enrichment due to evaporation. A possible explanation of this resides in a surface enrichment owing to capillary flow. Potassium, and to a lesser extent magnesium, accumulated in spring and autumn but were actively removed by plants in summer. Calcium was removed also outside the growing season, probably by cation exchange on peat. Keywords: bog water, cations, evapotranspiration, precipitation, seasonal variation.
  • Bragazza, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of Padua, Via Gradenigo 6, 1-35131 Padua, Italy Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Risto Lauhanen. Kaivukaluston tuottavuus, työnjalki ja kustannukset kunnostusojituksessa.
English title: The productivity, work quality and the costs of employing backhoes and excavators in ditch network maintenance.
Avainsanat: forest drainage; additional ditching; ditch cleaning; excavating machines; work studies
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Four backhoes and four excavators were studied in different excavation difficulty classes (1-5) during the unfrozen period in the western part of Finland. The productivity (per effective hour) of the backhoes in ditch digging (additional ditching) was 54-172 m/h and 68-202 m/h in ditch cleaning. The productivity of the excavators was 114-289 m/h and 88-250 m/h, respectively. Productivity decreased as the difficulty class increased. It was affected by the width of the ditch line opening, the stoniness, and ditch depth. Productivity seemed to be affected by the machine operator, too. The work quality was acceptable. The operating costs were 268-388 FIM per hour for the machines costing 400 000-1000 000 FIM. Key words: additional ditching, ditch cleaning, excavating machines, forest drainage, work studies
  • Lauhanen, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Kannus Research Station, FIN-69100 Kannus, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Heikki Veijalainen, Klaus Silfverberg, Jyrki Hytönen. Metsäteollisuuden bioliete ja kivihiilen tuhka rauduskoivun taimien ravinnelahteenä.
English title: Pulp biosludge and coal ash as nutrient sources for silver birch seedlings.
Avainsanat: fertilization; Boron toxicity; peat substrate; recycling
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Biosludge from a biological waste-water treatment plant was tested in a greenhouse experiment on three substrates at 7 levels (0-240 m3/ha). The growth of birch seedlings was best on nitrogen poor substrate collected from a Vaccinium vitis-idaea (VT) forest site. NPK-fertilization was superior to sludge treatments on poor peat substrate. Biosludge increased the foliar nitrogen content on all three soils. Nutritional value of coal ash was tested at 17 levels (0.4-160 t/ha) on mineral soil from an afforested field. Low application levels of coal ash (400-1600 kg/ha) increased the growth of the birch seedlings more than other applications. However, even extremely high coal ash amounts (up to 160 t/ha) were not lethal for birch seedlings. Coal ash increased foliar boron contents two to three fold and with applications higher than 20 t/ha increase was five to seven fold. Birches planted in 1978 on a coal ash landfilling area showed good survival and growth, despite toxic boron contents and visual disturbances in the leaves. Key words: Boron toxicity, fertilization, peat substrate, recycling
  • Veijalainen, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Box 18, FIN-01301 Vantaa Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Silfverberg, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
  • Hytönen, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Stanislav E Vompersky, Ivanov Anatolij. Soiden luokittelu metsätaloutta varten entisessä Neuvostoliitossa.
English title: Classification of mires in the forestry in the former USSR.
Avainsanat: forest drainage; Russia; Latvia; Lithuania; Siberia
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Peatlands and paludified forests have been regarded and classified as forests on peat soil in the former USSR. Treeless mires and sparsely forested mires with poor-quality tree stands have considered to be real mires. That is why in Russia, the term of forest type is traditionally used instead of mire type. The dominant tree species has the indicator role of the site type and this is also reflected in the name of the forest type. Besides the nationwide classification based on Sukachev's works, there are also some interesting regional (now national) classification systems especially in Latvia and Lithuania. Key words: forest drainage, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Siberia
  • Vompersky, Institute of Forest Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, Uspenskoye, Moscow Region, 143030 Russia Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Anatolij, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Hedwig Roderfeld. Kohosoiden luonnontilaan palauttaminen turpeen noston jälkeen Luoteis-Saksassa.
English title: Raised bog regeneration after peat harvesting in North-West Germany.
Avainsanat: peatlands; nature protection; rehabilitation; top spit
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An increasing awareness of the environment and the wide extension of mined peatlands require actions and measurements in order to ensure their regeneration and protection. A brief description of the most important peat harvesting methods in North-West Germany shows the stratigraphy of peatlands after exploitation has been finished and ecotechnological actions have been started to initiate a raised bog regeneration. The actions and measurements applied depend also on the properties of the peat as on the properties of the top spit layer. The requirements for a successful rewetting of peatlands will be shown. The terminology concerning the subject of raised bog regeneration will be explained. Keywords: nature protection, peatlands, rehabilitation, top spit
  • Roderfeld, Institute of Soil Technology Bremen, Geological Survey of Lower-Saxony, Friedrich-Mifller-Str. 46/50, D-2800 Bremen, Germany Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Paula Isoaho, Risto Lauhanen, Markku Saarinen. Metsäojien jatkuvan kunnossapidon vaikutus ojitusalueiden tilaan Keski-Pohjanmaalla.
English title: Effects of continuous ditch network maintenance on the condition of forest drainage areas in Central Ostrobothnia district.
Avainsanat: forest drainage; Alternative excavating methods; ditch maintenance; stand volume
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The estimated annual need for ditch network maintenance in Finnish peatland forests is over 100 000 hectares, most of it consisting of ditch cleaning. However, there are not enough funds available for the needs of remedial ditching. In addition, environmental aspects in peatland forestry must be considered more than in the past. Thus, it is necessary to evaluate alternative work methods of ditch network maintenance. This paper presents the effects of continuous ditch network maintenance on the dimensions and the condition of ditches, as well as on the development of the tree stands on ditched sites. Key words: Alternative excavating methods, ditch maintenance, forest drainage, stand volume
  • Isoaho, The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Kannus Research Station, FIN-69100 Kannus, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Lauhanen, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
  • Saarinen, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Raili Jokinen, Leila Urvas, Seppo Hyvärinen. Uuttuva kupari viljellyissä eloperäisissä maissa.
English title: Extractable copper in cultivated organic soils.
Avainsanat: peat soil; mould soil; pH; Humus; total copper
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The content of acid (pH 4.65) ammonium acetate-EDTA (AAAc-EDTA) extractable Cu was in mould soils (9.6 ±5.7 mg/1 soil) about one and a half times that in peat soils (6.6 ± 4.4 mg/1). There was a close positive dependence between extractable Cu and the total Cu in both soil types. The proportion of extractable Cu on the total Cu was in mould soils (wet combustion 40.0 ± 13.3%; dry ashing 40.9 ± 11.3%) somewhat lower than in peat soils (wet combustion 47.4 ± 13.6%; dry ashing 53.4 ± 19.5%). In mould soils the decrease in soil acidity had an increasing effect on both extractable Cu and total Cu contents of soil. In peat soils the extractable Cu and total Cu contents were lowest between pH(H20) values 5.0 and 5.5, and increased with both increasing and decreasing the soil acidity. The extractable Cu and total Cu contents were highest in mould soils of low humus content and in peat soils having humus content between 60 and 70%. Keywords: Humus, mould soil, peat soil, pH, total copper
  • Jokinen, Agricultural Research Centre of Finland, Institute of Soils and Environment, FIN-31600 Jokioinen, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Urvas, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
  • Hyvärinen, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Harri Vasander, Jussi Kuusipalo, Tapio Lindholm. Kasvillisuuden muutokset rämeillä ojituksen ja lannoituksen jalkeen.
English title: Vegetation changes after drainage and fertilization in pine mires.
Avainsanat: peatland forestry; Biomass; Apatite; biodiversity; biotite; urea
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The effects of drainage and fertilization (both slowly and readily soluble fertilizers were included) on the above-ground biomass and cover of understorey vegetation were studied in two mires situated at Lammi, southern Finland, and at Ilomantsi, northern Karelia. Urea and especially micronutrients decreased the cover of Sphagnum species. Slowly soluble nitrogen also decreased the cover of Sphagnum, but not as efficiently. In fen site types the cover and biomass of Vaccinium oxycoccos and Andromeda polifolia increased strongly after fertilization. The greatest change in vegetation was caused by micronutrients given together with macronutrients. The cover and biomass of Eriophorum vaginatum and Rubus chamaemorus increased on all the fertilization plots probably because phosphorus was included in all the treatments. Calluna vulgaris and Empetrum nigrum benefited from the NPK fertilization on hummock sites. Keywords: Apatite, biodiversity, biomass, biotite, peatland forestry, urea
  • Vasander, Department of Forest Ecology, P.O. Box 24 (Unioninkatu 40 B), FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Kuusipalo, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
  • Lindholm, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo

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