Suo - Mires and peat 35 (1984)

Jouko Hämäläinen. Metsänlannoituksen kannattavuudesta erityisesti turvemailla.
English title: On the profitability of fertilization especially in forest stands on peatland.
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The article presents some earlier published results (Folia Forestalia 570) on the profitability of fertilization of mature Scots pine stands growing on drained peatland in southern Finland (Tables 1, 2 and Figures 1, 2). NPK-fertilized pine stands growing on drained peatland were clearly more infertile than the PK fertilized plots, and hence the study is not concerned with alternative NPK or PK fertilization on plots of the same type. Preliminary results concerning the profitability of fertilization of mature Norway spruce stands on drained peatland are also given. According to these results, fertilization of spruce stands, which were naturally more fertile than pine stands on peatland, seems to be slightly more profitable. The profitability of single applications of fertilizer on peatlands is also compared to that of single and repeatedly fertilized stands on mineral soils (internal rate of return). Single PK-fertilization of mature spruce stands on drained peatland seems to give nearly the same profitability as single N fertilization of mature spruce stands on mineral soils. Single PK fertilized mature pine stands on peatland also attain almost the same profitability level as both spruce stands. On the other hand, a higher internal rate of return is obtained with single N fertilization of mature pine stands on mineral soils than with the other fertilization treatments described above. Repeated fertilizations begun in young or middle aged stands are not so profitable as single fertilization on mature stands.
  • Hämäläinen, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Olli Salminen. Ojitetun korpikuusikon kertalannoituksen kannattavuus.
English title: The profitability of fertilization on drained spruce swamps.
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Salminen, O. 1984: Ojitetun korpikuusikon kertalannoituksen kannattavuus. (The profitability of fertilization on drained spruce swamps.) — Suo 35: 127—131. Helsinki. The paper concerns the profitability of PK and NPK fertilization in mature spruce stands on drained peatland in South Finland. The profitability was found to be very high in plots given 200 kg/ha or 400 kg/ha of PK fertilizer. The other treatments also gave at least a satisfactory economic result. On average, PK fertilizations was noticeably more profitable than NPK fertilization.
  • Salminen, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Seppo Kaunisto. Yhteenveto lannoitustutkimuksista metsikön perustamisen ja taimikonhoidon yhteydessä turvemailla.
English title: Fertilization at stand establishment and referti-lization of young stands on peat soils in Finland. Literature review.
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Fertilization has had only a minor effect when carried out in conjunction with the reforestation of forest-covered peatlands, apart from in southern Finland where NPK fertilization has increased the growth of pine seedlings and transplants on oligotrophic pine swamps. On bogs phosphorus is the most important nutrient at the afforestation stage, but later on potassium deficiency may abruptly cause the deterioration and even death of the stands. Pine and birch can be grown on peat cutover areas without N fertilization. The mineral nutrition of trees can be satisfied either by the mineral nutrients in the subsoil, if the peat layer is thin or if mineral soil has been lifted onto the peat, or by fertilization. The refertilization of young stands with NPK instead of PK may lead to frost damage in pine, unless boron is simultaneously applied.
  • Kaunisto, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Jyrki Hytönen. Energiapajujen lannoituksesta entisillä turvetuotantoalueilla.
English title: The fertilization of energy willow plantations growing on worked-out peat extraction fields.
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The possibilities of producing wood biomass as an energy source in intensive willow plantations is currently being studied as part of the PERA Project (Wood as a Source of Energy) at the Finnish Forest Research Institute. The pH of the peat substrate in areas no longer used for peat production is usually, without soil amelioration, too low for the satisfactory development of the roots of willow. The peat in swamp bottoms has a low phosphorus and potassium content, and the large amounts of nitrogen that are present are bound in an unavailable form in the organic matter. Willows have proved to be very demanding plants. They take up considerable amounts of nutrients — phosphorus and potassium and especially nitrogen — and the amount of nutrients bound in the park and stemwood is many times that bound by birch and pine. The harvesting of the complete above-ground biomass of young willow stands at short intervals may increase the need for fertilization.
  • Hytönen, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Riitta Heinonen. Turvemaiden lannoituskokeiden tilastollisesta analyysista.
English title: Statistical analysis of fertilization trials on peatlands.
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The problems associated with the statistical analysis of fertilization experiments on peatlands are treated in the paper. The adjustment of growth results from a drained spruce swamp by means of covariance analysis is used as an example.
  • Heinonen, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Timo Penttilä. Jatkolannoitus Lapin viljavilla rämeillä.
English title: Refertilization on meso-trophic pine swamps in northern Finland.
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The paper deals with the effects of refertilization on the growth response of pine growing on drained nitrogen-rich swamps in northern Finland. The results of five replicated factorial experiments are presented. Primary fertilization, mainly with PK, was carried out 10—13 years before refertilization with the following treatments: N, P, K and in three experiments also a micronutrient mixture (H). Growth responses were measured 4—6 years after refertilization. Of the single factors, N had a positive effect in a shallow-peated experiment and the micronutrient mixture in a deep-peated one. The effect of P and K was not significant in any of the experiments. However, the treatment means showed a clear positive effect with NK or NKH, except in the northernmost experiment. The effect of PK strengthened towards the end of the study period. The results imply that primary fer-tilization, especially with P, still had an effect at the time of refertilization. Final conclusions concerning PK fertilization and also the effect of nitrogen should be based on a longer period of observation.
  • Penttilä, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Mikko Moilanen. Tuloksia suursararämeen männikön jatkolannoituksesta Pohjois-Pohjanmaalla ja Kainuussa.
English title: Results on refertilization of large sedge swamp pine stands in the North Ostrobothnia and Kainuu area.
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The preliminary results concerning the effect of refertilization on volume increment in a pine stand at the first thinning stage are given in this article. The studied sites are thick peat, fertile pine swamps which have been originally drained during the 1930's. The refertilization was done in autumn 1974, 10-15 years after the basic fertilization. The largest increment in stand volume was obtained with nutrient combinations comprising all three main nutrients: nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus. Mere PK fertilization had very little effect on the stand growth. When the amount of potassium was increased from the present recommended level, the growth reaction increased "markedly", especially on open peatlands or on stands that had been regenerated on open peatlands.
  • Moilanen, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Eero Paavilainen. Typpi ja hivenravinteet ojitettujen rämeiden jatkolannoituksessa.
English title: Nitrogen and micronutrients in the refertilization of drained pine swamps.
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The report is part of the refertilization project started in 1972 in the Department of Peatland Forestry, the Finnish Forest Research Institute. Nitrogen, as well as phosphorus and potassium, are required in the refertilization of oligotrophic pine bogs. The need for nitrogen is less on fertile pine swamps, although in some experiments moderate fertilization with nitrogen in addition to PK gave the greatest stand growth increment. The use of micronutrients, especially boron, is recommended in the refertilization of fertile pine swamps. Methods for determining the need for nitrogen and micronutrients in refertilization should be further developed.
  • Paavilainen, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Heikki Veijalainen. Lannoitustarpeen määritys metsäojitusalueilla.
English title: Diagnosing nut­rient deficiencies on drained peatlands.
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In Finland, determination of the fertilization requirements of freshly ditched peat-lands is generally based on the ground vegetation. Ground vegetation and site type are correlated rather well with the levels of certain nutrients in the peat. The large number of peatland site types have been grouped into three fertility categories on the basis of the fertilization requirements: 1. No fertilization needed 2. PK fertilization recommended 3. NPK fertilization recommended Fertility classification may be misleading in the case of old drainage areas and growth disturbance areas, especially in the refertilization stage. In order to avoid fruitless and erroneous fertilization treatments the following suplementary methods may be used: — fertilization experiments — identifying visible deficiency symptoms — chemical foliage analysis — chemical peat analysis Needle analysis is most suitable in pine stands. In treeless areas and in spruce and birch stands other methods are more applicable at the present time.
  • Veijalainen, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Eero Paavilainen. Lannoitus ja ravinteiden kierto suometsissä.
English title: Fertilization and nutrient cycle in peatland forests.
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The effect of the first fertilization (PK, NPK) on the plant biomass and nutrient cycle of a drained dwarf shrub pine swamps was only barely noticeable after thirteen growing seasons. NPK refertilization increased the annual biomass production and the amount of litter. The macronutrient content of the tree crop and the field layer vegetation increased, while the copper and boron content decreased after refertilizati-on. NPK fertilization also increased the amount of nutrients in the litter, and accelerated the decomposition of cellulose test slips and needle litter. The individual nutrient contents on a nitrogen-rich peat soil were clearly higher in, the birch litter than in the pine litter. Refertilization, especially with NPK and micro-nutrients, in most cases increased the nutrient contents and amount of litter.
  • Paavilainen, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Klaus Silfverberg. Kuivatustehon ja lannoituksen vaikutus rämemännikön kehitykseen.
English title: Effects of drainage intensity and fertilization in a pine bog stand.
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Since 1961 an investigation has been carried out to determine the role of certain growth factors in peatland forests. The study area was a drained dwarf-shrub pine bog at Jaakkoinsuo, Central Finland (62°03'N, 24°43'E). The water table in the ditches surrounding the sample plots was maintained at four (10, 30, 50, 70 cm) levels below the peat surface. One of the series was fertilized twice with NPK. and another covered with a thick cover of straw The third was unfertilized. At a regulation level of 70 cm the volume growth increment for 1961-80 was as great on the unfertilized plot as on the one fertilized twice with NPK. This was chiefly due to the effective mobilization of the nutrient resources in the peat. At the 10 cm level, growth was weak because of poor aerobic conditions in the root zone. NPK fertilization gave the greatest increment at levels of 30 and 50 cm. The greatest increment was, however, achieved on the straw-covered plots. The reason was most probably the elimination of competing field and ground layers. The differences between the regulation levels remained quite similar throughout the study period. We can thus suppose that effective drainage may partly compensate for fertilization, if the nitrogen reserves in the peat are adequate.
  • Silfverberg, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Samuli Joensuu. Säätekijoiden vaikutus ojitettujen turvemaiden mäntyjen sädekasvuun.
English title: The influence of climatic factors on the radial growth of Scots pine in drained peatlands.
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The aim of this study is to examine the effect of various climatic factors on the variation in the radial growth of Scots pine growing on drained peatlands. The computed radial growth indices of peatland stands were compared to the corresponding radial growth indices of pines on mineral soils and the results show that the variation in radial growth is rather similar in both mineral soil and drained peatland stands. The most important climate factors affecting the radial growth of Scots pines on the ditch-side segments of the strip between ditches are the effective accumulative temperature of the previous growing season and the humidity (precipitation/mean temperature) in the beginning of the growing season in question. On the centre segment of the strip the most important climatic factor is precipitation sum of the previous growing season. Site quality index, condition of drainage and diameter of the trees seem to affect the correlation between various climatic factors and the radial growth of Scots pines in drained peatlands.
  • Joensuu, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Martti Aho, Jouni Tummavuori. Turpeen ioninvaihto-ominaisuuksista. Osa V: Eräiden Sphagnum-tyyppisten turvelajien ioninvaihto-ominaisuudet.
English title: The ion exchange properties of peat. Part V: Ion exchange properties of some Sphagnum peats.
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Normal milled peat contains different species of Sphagnum-peat. Five typical Sphagnum-peats were chosen for study in order to investigate differences in their ion exchange properties. IR-spectrum and TG-analysis reveal a great difference in the structure of the peat samples. Differences in the elementar composition does not effect on the ion exchange capacities. The ion exchange capacities of the different peat samples differ from each other S.fuscum having the largest capacity. This can be seen in IR-spectra at wave number region 1708—1727 cm-1. When the test solution first flows through the column the adsorption percentage is high but after a certain moment, the adsorption percentage decreases. The decrease obeys the first order kinetics.
  • Aho, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Tummavuori, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Hannu Pajunen. Senegalin turve-esiintymät.
English title: Peat deposits in Senegal.
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In the main part of Senegal the rainfall is very small compared to the evaporation. Therefore the peat forming vegetation can only be upheld eather by sea water or by ground water. Mangrove swamps are located in the estuaries of the main rivers. They cover wide areas but the deposition of peat requires special conditions. The mires upheld by fresh ground water are located on the coast north of Dakar. The develop-ment of the mires depends on the ground water level. If the water level is high, the depressions are inundated and ooze is deposited. Conversely during the phase of low ground water level the mineralization dominates. Because the area is located close to the sea, the ground water level is controlled by the sea as well as the climate.
  • Pajunen, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Michael R. Starr. Erään monimuuttujamenetelmän käyttämisestä suotyyppien välisten suhteiden tutkimisessa.
English title: Non-metric multidimensional scaling of a peatland vegetation data set.
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Non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS) is used to produce a two-dimensional sample ordination of a set of peatland site type community data. The MDS ordination is assessed by comparing it to Heikurainen's and Pakarinen's informal two-dimensional ordination of peatland site types. The MDS ordination produces clusters of quadrats which correspond to the five site types sampled. The result with species presence-absence data is similar to that with species percentage cover data although the clusters are more distinctive with presence-absence data. The relationship of the five sampled site types to trophy and wetness gradients as indicated by Heikurainen and Pakarinen could only be approached by fitting curved, overlapping gradients in the MDS ordination. The reason for the curvature of the environmental gratients is considered to be largely the result of the bias towards nutrient poor and dry conditions represented by the site types sampled. The effect of drainage upon ecological conditions in two of the site types sample is briefly discussed.
  • Starr, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Martti Aho, Jouni Tummavuori. Turpeen ioninvaihto-ominaisuuksista. Osa IV: Koeolosuhteiden vaikutus turpeen ioninvaihtokykyyn.
English title: On the ion-exchange properties of peat. Part IV: The effects of experimental conditions on ion exchange properties of Sphagnum peat.
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The effects of experimental conditions on the ion exchange capacity of a column-shaped peat layer were studied. To make sure that the results were universal the columns were prepared from two peat types with strongly different cation adsorption capacities. The cation used was Cu2+. An increase in pH increased strongly the adsorption capacities in the pH range 1—5. Below the level of 200 ppm Cu2+ the capacity was to some extent dependent on concentration. Because of the rapidity of adsorption the flow rate and column height had practically no effect on the capacity. The use of peat as an ion exchanger was studied by using a larger column prepared from the low-moor peat sample. The capacity was near the value reached with the smaller column and it remained nearly constant after repeated copper-adsorptions, elutions and washings. The maximum flow rate decreased in the beginning and reached a constant level rather soon. The peat column worked like an ion exchange resin but the capacity was smaller. The results give an impetus to the use of larger peat columns made from selected, low moor peat for heavy metal filtration.
  • Aho, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Tummavuori, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Raimo Heikkilä. Karujen rämeiden ja nevojen ojituksista, erityisesti Etelä-Pohjanmaalla.
English title: Unprofitable forestry drainage of sparsely tree covered and treeless poor mires, especially in Southern Ostrobothnia, Western Finland.
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Forestry drainage of sparsely tree covered and treeless poor mires was studied on the basis of mire type and drainage knowledge of peat investigation reports of the Geological Survey of Finland. The material was checked by aerial photos and field investigations, and from the drainage plarts of the organisation responsible for the drainage. Drainage of the studied mire types is known to be unprofitable. The propor-tion of unprofitably drained mire types of each studied mire was calculated. Of the total mire area studied, 79891 ha, some 13800 ha was unprofitably ameliorated, i.e. 35 % of total drained area on the studied mires. In Southern Ostrobothnia 2190 ha was studied in detail There 650 ha had been unprofitably drained, i.e. 30 % of drained area. The reason for the unprofitability of the amelioration was usually false deter-mination of mire types. The amount of trees on the mires has also often been overestimated. The results cannot be generalized to all mires and ameliorations in Finland, because the studied mires were rather large, minimum area being 20 ha. On such mires the proportion of poor sparsely tree covered and treeless mire types is greater than on finhish mires in general. Smaller mires are often densely tree covered pine or spruce swamps, the amelioration of which is usually profitable. The confidence of the results is best in Southern Ostrobothnia, where also some small mires were studied. Further investigations are anyway necessary.
  • Heikkilä, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Pekka Lähdesmäki. Humushapot edistävat mikrobiaalista rautasaostumien muodostumista suovesissa.
English title: Humic acids and microorganisms stimulate the precipitation of iron in bogs.
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Humic acids and certain thiobacilli and blue-green algae (Beggiatoa and Oscillatoria species) found in peat water stimulated the precipitation of oxidized iron products both in natural water and in laboratory cultures. The complex Fe (II)/Fe (III) humates had a considerably lower redox potential than Fe (II)/Fe (III) sulphate (488 vs. 782 mV at pH 2.0, 25 °C). Oxygen consumption in excess of the endogenous rate occurring during the oxidation of Fe (II) to Fe (III) was significantly higher in the presence of humic acids and pyrophosphates than in that of sulphates and oxalates, for instance. The presence of microorganisms and high amounts of humic acids in some natural water samples may be the main reason for the iron precipitation, since no other significant differences could be observed between water containing high or low amounts of ferruginous iron oxidate deposits.
  • Lähdesmäki, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Martti Saarilahti. Siipikaira ojituksen suunnittelussa.
English title: Vane test in planning of ditching.
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The paper discusses the use of vane test in the planning of forest ditching on peatland. A good correlation was found between the measured shear strength of peat and the quality of ditches after digging.
  • Saarilahti, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Leo Heikurainen. Metsäojitusalueiden hoito ja tulevaisuus.
English title: The maintenance and future of forest drainage areas.
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This paper is intended as a reply to the controversial paper by Mr. Eronen presented in this issue of Suo (p. 9), which deals with peatland forest drainage. Mr. Eronen, as a non-forester, has based his paper on a mistaken impression of peatland forestry and it contains errors and misunderstandings. For instance, the new peatland classification he proposes is merely a list of treatments which may or may not be necessary to maintain productivity of drained peatlands, depending upon the particular site. In my paper I point out this and other shortcomings of Mr. Eronen's paper.
  • Heikurainen, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Jarmo Eronen. Suonojitus ja puunsaanti.
English title: Peatland drainage and wood production.
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Current Finnish peatland classification serves as a normative guideline for directing drainage of peatlands capable of wood growth. Drainage operations have, however, been extended to all types of peatlands, irrespective of their wood growing potential. A new peatland classification is proposed, which — covers all types of drained peatlands, including the unsuccesful ones — emphasizes factors relevant for commercial wood production on drained peatlands This classification stresses the economic aspects of silvicultural and logging operations on drained peatlands.
  • Eronen, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Kimmo Tolonen, Martti Toikka. Radioaaltoanturi turpeen maatuneisuuden mittarina.
English title: Measuring the degree of decomposition in peats by means of a radiowave probe.
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A radiowave probe, which fairly precisily measures the moisture content of peat in situ, enables a rough estimation of the degree of decomposition in certain kinds of peat. It was found that the Acutifolia peats belong to these. This group of Sphagnum (moss) peat is the most commonly used garden (horticultural) peat type in many countries.
  • Tolonen, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Toikka, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo

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