Suo - Mires and peat vol. 52 no. 2 | 2001

Markus Hartman, Seppo Kaunisto, Klaus Silfverberg. Turpeen ominaisuudet ja kasvillisuus metsitetyn ja lannoitetun avosuon eri trofiatasoilla.
English title: Peat properties and vegetation along different trophic levels on an afforested, fertilised mire.
Avainsanat: Sphagnum; nitrogen; Carex; mineral nutrients; peat component; degree of humification; forest mosses
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Relationships between the peat nutrient concentrations and the degree of humification, the ground vegetation and the botanical composition of the peat were studied on an afforested, originally treeless mire with a wide nitrogen gradient. The afforestation was carried out in 1971 using spot sowing and spot fertilisation. A broadcast fertilisation experiment that involved six replicates with four treatments, (i) a control, (ii) PK (rock phosphate and KCl), (iii) PK+ B, Cu and (iiii) wood ash was established in 1981–82. The surface peat layers were sampled for nutrient analyses in 1995 and for peat type determinations in 1997. The ground vegetation was inventoried in 1995. In 1995, the peat total nitrogen concentration varied from 8.7 to 29.1 mg g-1 in the 0–5 cm peat layer. The total nitrogen, phosphorus and iron concentrations and the degree of humification in the peat were all positively correlated with the proportion of Carex components and with each other. The frequency of Sphagnum mosses correlated negatively but that of forest mosses positively with the peat total nitrogen concentration. Broadcast fertilisation with wood ash increased the concentrations of phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, manganese, boron, copper and zinc especially in the 0–5 cm peat layer but did not affect other peat properties or the ground vegetation.
  • Hartman, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Reseach Centre, P.O. Box 18, 01301 Vantaa Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Kaunisto, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
  • Silfverberg, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
James Aber, Susan Aber. Leijailmakuvausmenetelmän käyttömahdollisuudet soiden kartoituksessa - esimerkkejä Viron soilta.
English title: Potential of kite aerial photography for peatland investigations with examples from Estonia.
Avainsanat: peatland; Estonia; Remote Sensing; kite aerial photography
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Kite aerial photography (KAP) involves the use of large kites to lift camera rigs 50–150 m above the ground. Various types of radio-controlled, single- and dual-camera systems may be employed to acquire images in visible and near-infrared portions of the spectrum. KAP has many advantages for peatland research, including: high portability, rapid setup and operation, small crew, range of suitable weather and site conditions, high-resolution images, and low cost of equipment and operation. On this basis, KAP could be utilized for multitemporal imagery throughout the growing season and from year to year to document study sites. Kite aerial photography at Endla Nature Reserve in Estonia demonstrates the potential of this method for acquiring useful images in vertical and oblique orientations. Sun glint in oblique views (toward the sun) can highlight the presence of water bodies regardless of water depth or turbidity. Color-infrared KAP would be especially useful for separating different types of vegetation cover and water bodies in peat bogs. Kite aerial photography could represent one level of observation in a multistage and multitemporal approach that involves ground study, conventional aerial photographs, and satellite imagery.
  • Aber, Earth Science, Emporia State University, Emporia, Kansas, 66801 U.S.A. Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Aber, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Petri Pellikka. Suopohjat kierrätykseen - mitä tehdä vanhoilla turvetuotantoalueilla?
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An important topic among peat producers, nature conservationists and scientists is the reuse of approximately 50 000 hectares of peat production areas which will be abandoned in next ten years. Depending on the soil properties, thickness of the remained peat, geomorphology of the soil and bedrock and ground water characteristics, there are many options to choose from. The most typical reuse of those areas has been afforestration, but depending on the soil properties, the land is suitable also for agriculture of various forms, such as cereal, potato, strawberry or cranberry farming to name but a few. In lake poor areas, such as Southern Ostrobothnia, the areas can be transformed to lakes for recreation or bird hunting purposes. The most important thing is to do something since without care; these areas will transform themselves into useless bushland. The reuse is great environmental issue, but also an economical issue for distant peat producing regions of Finland. Reuse of peat production areas was discussed in a mire seminar held on February 2, 2001 in Jalasjärvi, Southern Ostrobothnia, Finland. This report briefly outlines the topics discussed in the seminar. Geological Survey of Finland has been carrying out pilot-projects, in which the soil and ground water properties of several peat production areas are surveyed by using GPS receivers and ground penetrating radar in order to find out most suitable use. The results and possible choices of reuse are visualised using GIS enabling decision making. Construction of lakes is considered important in lake-poor areas for balancing the discharge, for migrating birds and for recreation hunting. For afforestration, the large, flat peat production areas with extreme wind and illumination conditions are difficult areas, since lot of fertilizers are needed and the thin peat layer is easily burned by sun and blown away by wind. The areas are very suitable for organic farming in a way that no fertilizers have been added to the soil after the last ice age. In environmental sense, the most important principles are protection of water resources and hydrology, increasing the biodiversity and creation of sink for greenhouse gases. In order to do this, the only choices are afforestration or reintroduction of mires. However, it is also essential that infrastructure constructed for peat production (roads, ditches and electricity) could be of use after peat is lifted.
  • Pellikka, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)

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