Suo - Mires and peat vol. 35 no. 4-5 | 1984

Jouko Hämäläinen. Metsänlannoituksen kannattavuudesta erityisesti turvemailla.
English title: On the profitability of fertilization especially in forest stands on peatland.
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The article presents some earlier published results (Folia Forestalia 570) on the profitability of fertilization of mature Scots pine stands growing on drained peatland in southern Finland (Tables 1, 2 and Figures 1, 2). NPK-fertilized pine stands growing on drained peatland were clearly more infertile than the PK fertilized plots, and hence the study is not concerned with alternative NPK or PK fertilization on plots of the same type. Preliminary results concerning the profitability of fertilization of mature Norway spruce stands on drained peatland are also given. According to these results, fertilization of spruce stands, which were naturally more fertile than pine stands on peatland, seems to be slightly more profitable. The profitability of single applications of fertilizer on peatlands is also compared to that of single and repeatedly fertilized stands on mineral soils (internal rate of return). Single PK-fertilization of mature spruce stands on drained peatland seems to give nearly the same profitability as single N fertilization of mature spruce stands on mineral soils. Single PK fertilized mature pine stands on peatland also attain almost the same profitability level as both spruce stands. On the other hand, a higher internal rate of return is obtained with single N fertilization of mature pine stands on mineral soils than with the other fertilization treatments described above. Repeated fertilizations begun in young or middle aged stands are not so profitable as single fertilization on mature stands.
  • Hämäläinen, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Olli Salminen. Ojitetun korpikuusikon kertalannoituksen kannattavuus.
English title: The profitability of fertilization on drained spruce swamps.
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Salminen, O. 1984: Ojitetun korpikuusikon kertalannoituksen kannattavuus. (The profitability of fertilization on drained spruce swamps.) — Suo 35: 127—131. Helsinki. The paper concerns the profitability of PK and NPK fertilization in mature spruce stands on drained peatland in South Finland. The profitability was found to be very high in plots given 200 kg/ha or 400 kg/ha of PK fertilizer. The other treatments also gave at least a satisfactory economic result. On average, PK fertilizations was noticeably more profitable than NPK fertilization.
  • Salminen, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Seppo Kaunisto. Yhteenveto lannoitustutkimuksista metsikön perustamisen ja taimikonhoidon yhteydessä turvemailla.
English title: Fertilization at stand establishment and referti-lization of young stands on peat soils in Finland. Literature review.
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Fertilization has had only a minor effect when carried out in conjunction with the reforestation of forest-covered peatlands, apart from in southern Finland where NPK fertilization has increased the growth of pine seedlings and transplants on oligotrophic pine swamps. On bogs phosphorus is the most important nutrient at the afforestation stage, but later on potassium deficiency may abruptly cause the deterioration and even death of the stands. Pine and birch can be grown on peat cutover areas without N fertilization. The mineral nutrition of trees can be satisfied either by the mineral nutrients in the subsoil, if the peat layer is thin or if mineral soil has been lifted onto the peat, or by fertilization. The refertilization of young stands with NPK instead of PK may lead to frost damage in pine, unless boron is simultaneously applied.
  • Kaunisto, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Jyrki Hytönen. Energiapajujen lannoituksesta entisillä turvetuotantoalueilla.
English title: The fertilization of energy willow plantations growing on worked-out peat extraction fields.
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The possibilities of producing wood biomass as an energy source in intensive willow plantations is currently being studied as part of the PERA Project (Wood as a Source of Energy) at the Finnish Forest Research Institute. The pH of the peat substrate in areas no longer used for peat production is usually, without soil amelioration, too low for the satisfactory development of the roots of willow. The peat in swamp bottoms has a low phosphorus and potassium content, and the large amounts of nitrogen that are present are bound in an unavailable form in the organic matter. Willows have proved to be very demanding plants. They take up considerable amounts of nutrients — phosphorus and potassium and especially nitrogen — and the amount of nutrients bound in the park and stemwood is many times that bound by birch and pine. The harvesting of the complete above-ground biomass of young willow stands at short intervals may increase the need for fertilization.
  • Hytönen, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Riitta Heinonen. Turvemaiden lannoituskokeiden tilastollisesta analyysista.
English title: Statistical analysis of fertilization trials on peatlands.
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The problems associated with the statistical analysis of fertilization experiments on peatlands are treated in the paper. The adjustment of growth results from a drained spruce swamp by means of covariance analysis is used as an example.
  • Heinonen, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Timo Penttilä. Jatkolannoitus Lapin viljavilla rämeillä.
English title: Refertilization on meso-trophic pine swamps in northern Finland.
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The paper deals with the effects of refertilization on the growth response of pine growing on drained nitrogen-rich swamps in northern Finland. The results of five replicated factorial experiments are presented. Primary fertilization, mainly with PK, was carried out 10—13 years before refertilization with the following treatments: N, P, K and in three experiments also a micronutrient mixture (H). Growth responses were measured 4—6 years after refertilization. Of the single factors, N had a positive effect in a shallow-peated experiment and the micronutrient mixture in a deep-peated one. The effect of P and K was not significant in any of the experiments. However, the treatment means showed a clear positive effect with NK or NKH, except in the northernmost experiment. The effect of PK strengthened towards the end of the study period. The results imply that primary fer-tilization, especially with P, still had an effect at the time of refertilization. Final conclusions concerning PK fertilization and also the effect of nitrogen should be based on a longer period of observation.
  • Penttilä, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Mikko Moilanen. Tuloksia suursararämeen männikön jatkolannoituksesta Pohjois-Pohjanmaalla ja Kainuussa.
English title: Results on refertilization of large sedge swamp pine stands in the North Ostrobothnia and Kainuu area.
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The preliminary results concerning the effect of refertilization on volume increment in a pine stand at the first thinning stage are given in this article. The studied sites are thick peat, fertile pine swamps which have been originally drained during the 1930's. The refertilization was done in autumn 1974, 10-15 years after the basic fertilization. The largest increment in stand volume was obtained with nutrient combinations comprising all three main nutrients: nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus. Mere PK fertilization had very little effect on the stand growth. When the amount of potassium was increased from the present recommended level, the growth reaction increased "markedly", especially on open peatlands or on stands that had been regenerated on open peatlands.
  • Moilanen, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Eero Paavilainen. Typpi ja hivenravinteet ojitettujen rämeiden jatkolannoituksessa.
English title: Nitrogen and micronutrients in the refertilization of drained pine swamps.
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The report is part of the refertilization project started in 1972 in the Department of Peatland Forestry, the Finnish Forest Research Institute. Nitrogen, as well as phosphorus and potassium, are required in the refertilization of oligotrophic pine bogs. The need for nitrogen is less on fertile pine swamps, although in some experiments moderate fertilization with nitrogen in addition to PK gave the greatest stand growth increment. The use of micronutrients, especially boron, is recommended in the refertilization of fertile pine swamps. Methods for determining the need for nitrogen and micronutrients in refertilization should be further developed.
  • Paavilainen, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Heikki Veijalainen. Lannoitustarpeen määritys metsäojitusalueilla.
English title: Diagnosing nut­rient deficiencies on drained peatlands.
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In Finland, determination of the fertilization requirements of freshly ditched peat-lands is generally based on the ground vegetation. Ground vegetation and site type are correlated rather well with the levels of certain nutrients in the peat. The large number of peatland site types have been grouped into three fertility categories on the basis of the fertilization requirements: 1. No fertilization needed 2. PK fertilization recommended 3. NPK fertilization recommended Fertility classification may be misleading in the case of old drainage areas and growth disturbance areas, especially in the refertilization stage. In order to avoid fruitless and erroneous fertilization treatments the following suplementary methods may be used: — fertilization experiments — identifying visible deficiency symptoms — chemical foliage analysis — chemical peat analysis Needle analysis is most suitable in pine stands. In treeless areas and in spruce and birch stands other methods are more applicable at the present time.
  • Veijalainen, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Eero Paavilainen. Lannoitus ja ravinteiden kierto suometsissä.
English title: Fertilization and nutrient cycle in peatland forests.
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The effect of the first fertilization (PK, NPK) on the plant biomass and nutrient cycle of a drained dwarf shrub pine swamps was only barely noticeable after thirteen growing seasons. NPK refertilization increased the annual biomass production and the amount of litter. The macronutrient content of the tree crop and the field layer vegetation increased, while the copper and boron content decreased after refertilizati-on. NPK fertilization also increased the amount of nutrients in the litter, and accelerated the decomposition of cellulose test slips and needle litter. The individual nutrient contents on a nitrogen-rich peat soil were clearly higher in, the birch litter than in the pine litter. Refertilization, especially with NPK and micro-nutrients, in most cases increased the nutrient contents and amount of litter.
  • Paavilainen, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Klaus Silfverberg. Kuivatustehon ja lannoituksen vaikutus rämemännikön kehitykseen.
English title: Effects of drainage intensity and fertilization in a pine bog stand.
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Since 1961 an investigation has been carried out to determine the role of certain growth factors in peatland forests. The study area was a drained dwarf-shrub pine bog at Jaakkoinsuo, Central Finland (62°03'N, 24°43'E). The water table in the ditches surrounding the sample plots was maintained at four (10, 30, 50, 70 cm) levels below the peat surface. One of the series was fertilized twice with NPK. and another covered with a thick cover of straw The third was unfertilized. At a regulation level of 70 cm the volume growth increment for 1961-80 was as great on the unfertilized plot as on the one fertilized twice with NPK. This was chiefly due to the effective mobilization of the nutrient resources in the peat. At the 10 cm level, growth was weak because of poor aerobic conditions in the root zone. NPK fertilization gave the greatest increment at levels of 30 and 50 cm. The greatest increment was, however, achieved on the straw-covered plots. The reason was most probably the elimination of competing field and ground layers. The differences between the regulation levels remained quite similar throughout the study period. We can thus suppose that effective drainage may partly compensate for fertilization, if the nitrogen reserves in the peat are adequate.
  • Silfverberg, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)

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