Artikkelit kirjoittajalta Ahti Mäkinen

Ahti Mäkinen. Tervaleppäyhdyskuntien ekologia ja kasvillisuus Suomessa.
English title: Vegetation and ecology of black alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.) dominated swamps and mesic forest sites in Finland.
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This study includes all black alder sites (or stands) in Finland in the natural state from wet black alder swamps to fresh black alder -dominated forests. The material is based on 650 sample plots with complete descriptions of vegetation and ecology studied in altogether 200 black alder sites all over the distribution area (59°47′–66°45′N).
The a priori classification of the studied sites is based on field observations during several decades and on DCA-ordination and clustering analysis (Euclidian distance with centroid group averages and the Ward linkage method) using the Finnish “Cajanderian” forest and mire site type classification approach.
Based on this material, 14 black alder community types and several variations are described. Half of them are black alder swamps and the rest herb-rich and alluvial forests. Most of them are situated on lake and seashores where new sites are exposed continuously as a result of land elevation.
The results of the classification are compared with the phytosociology of several Northern and Central European black alder communities. Ecological factors affecting the formation and development of black alder communities in Finland are also discussed. Many of these environmental factors deviate noticeably from conditions in Central Europe and are reflecting the special features of Finnish black alder swamps and forests.

  • Mäkinen, Helsingin yliopisto Sähköposti: (sähköposti)
Pekka Pakarinen, Ahti Mäkinen. Suopursun ekologiasta, erityisesti hivenainetaloudesta.
English title: Trace metal distribution in Ledum palustre.
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Concentrations of five metals — Mn, Fe, Zn, Pb, Cu — were determined in samples of a common dwarf shrub, Ledum palustre, collected from seven S. Finnish raised bogs (between 60 and 61 °N) in September-October 1977. The analyses were made separately for the twigs (stems) of last four years and for the leaves of last two years. The material was dry-ashed at 450°C, dissolved in cone. HC1 on hot plate, filtered and diluted to 50 ml with deionized H2O which solution was finally analyzed with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Varian Techtron AA-1200). Ash percentage and manganese showed identical distributions with maximum values on second-year leaves and a decrease of concentrations in stems with age (Figs. 2 and 3). Also the concentrations of Fe, Zn and Pb (but not Cu) increased from first- to second-year leaves. In stems, there was a fairly regular increase in Fe and Pb levels from first to fourth year, while Zn and Cu changed little or decreased with age (Fig. 3). Average concentrations in Ledum (leaves + stems of last two years) were compared with those in the substrate (Sphagnum fuscum peat). The results (Table 1) showed that manganese was the most favoured metal and iron the least. The relative enrichment of metals from the peat substrate to Ledum followed the order Mn >Cu >Zn >Pb >Fe.
  • Pakarinen, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Mäkinen, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Ahti Mäkinen. Rahkasammal- ja turvepallot ilmansaastemittareina.
English title: Moss- and peat-bags in air pollution monitoring.
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Moss-bags have been used earlier for absorbing atmospheric metal pollutants in England around local emission sources (Goodman & Roberts 1971, Goodman et al. 1974, Little & Martin 1974). This paper describes the first results on the use of this method in Finland. In addition to Sphagnum mosses, experiments have also been made with other materials, including weakly decomposed Sphagnum peat. The moss-bags were roughly spherical balls of ca. 7 cm diameter containing on average 3 g (dry weight) of Sphagnum moss (Fig. 1). The dimensions of the peat-bags were smaller (Fig. 5), but the weight was approximately the same. After the period of exposure (1 to 3 months according to metal load), the material was oven-dried (at +50°C), dry-ashed at +450°C and finally the ash was dissolved in concentrated HC1 on a hot plate. The metals were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry at the Botany Dept., University of Helsinki. Sphagnum girgensohnii was collected from southern Finland and S. fuscum from northern Finland where the background metal contents are low (cf. Pakarinen & Tolonen 1976). Peat was collected from a depth of 60—100 cm, i.e. below the higher concentrations in the surface layers (cf. Pakarinen & Tolonen 1977).Preliminary results concerning the use of different materials in the Helsinki city area are presented in Table 1 (for study site, see Fig. 2). It appears that Sphagnum species of the Acutifolia group (S. fuscum and S. girgensohnii), as well as weakly decomposed Sphagnum peat, are more efficient collectors of airborne heavy metals than other materials used in the experiment (such as peat pots or cotton-wool). The seasonal variability in the metal content of different materials in the urban study site in Helsinki can be seen in Figs. 3 and 4. In particular the values for lead, but also to some extent for copper and zinc, are smaller during summer months. A similar seasonality in Helsinki has been earlier found for lead, e.g., with chemical monitoring (Nordman 1975). Outside the city area moss- and peat-bags have been used to study local effects of factories and highways. During a month's period in the autumn, the moss-bags collected high quantities of Pb and Zn near a lead smelter in Tikkurila (Fig. 6). Similarly, along a highway transect the total absorption of lead by peat-bags decreased steeply with distance (Fig. 7). The remarkable feature in both cases was a very small variability in the replicate samples at each distance from the local source. Using Sphagnum material from northern Finland, an extensive net of moss-bag stations has been established across Finland to study the applicability of this method for large-scale regional mapping of the fallout of different heavy metals. (Fig. 8). The technical development of the moss-bag method will continue in 1978, but already the results obtained so far do suggest that moss- and peat-bags can be recommended as an economic and efficient monitoring method, particularly where the living plants (lichens or mosses, e.g.) are absent or rare. For the laboratory analyses I am grateful to Mrs. Sirkka Heikkinen. This study has been supported by a grant from the Maj and Tor Nessling's Foundation to the research group Tolonen — Mä-kinen — Pakarinen.
  • Mäkinen, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Pekka Pakarinen, Ahti Mäkinen. Suosammalet, -jäkälät ja männyn neulaset raskasmetallien kerääjinä.
English title: Comparison of Pb, Zn and Mn contents of mosses, lichens and pine needles in raised bogs.
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This paper presents the results of heavy metal (trace element) analyses of plant samples collected from three undrained ombrotrophic bogs in southern Finland (60—61°N, Fig. 1). The species studied included three mosses — Sphagnum fuscum, S. balticum, S. majus — and four lichens — Cladonia stellaris (= C. alpestris), C. arbuscula, C. rangiferina, Hypogymnia (= Parmelia) physodes. Also the needles of stunted bog pines Pinus silvestris) were collected and separated according to age (current vs. 1—2-year-old needles). Collective samples (5—10 replicates) consisting only of the living top part were taken (lichens 4—5 cm, hollow mosses 3—6 cm, hummock mosses 2 cm). The samples were dry-ashed at + 500° C, then dissolved with cone, hydrochloric acid, diluted with distilled water and analysed for metals with Varian Techtron AA-1200 atomic absorption spectrophotometer at Botany Dept., University of Helsinki. Duplicate samples were also digested directly with HNO3 and HCl for control. The results of the former method are presented in Figs. 2—4 on oven-dry ( + 70°C) weight basis. Among bryophytes, the contents of Pb, Zn and Mn were in all cases highest in hummock species Sphagnum fuscum and lowest in the wet-hollow species S. majus. Among lichen species, the concentrations of lead and zinc decrease in the order: Hypogymnia physodes (epiphyte) > Cladonia rangiferina > C. stellaris, C. arbuscula. In Pinus the needles from the current year contain less metals than the needles from previous years. A comparison of different plant groups depends upon the element analysed (see Figs. 2—4). Mn content is highest in pine needles followed by Sphagnum fuscum and lowest in lichens and hollow mosses. Zn content is greatest in the epiphytic lichen Hypogymnia followed by pine needles, then by bog mosses and reindeer lichens. As opposed to zinc, the content of lead is lowest in pine needles which fact suggests a low absorption capacity of atmospheric heavy metals by pine needles. On the other hand, zinc and manganese seem to be actively translocated by pine. Consequently, needle analysis does not appear to be an appropriate method for monitoring the deposition of heavy metals. Both lichens and mosses (with the exception of hollow species), however, seem to be efficient accumulators of zinc and lead at least. If the annual primary production of mosses can be determined, it becomes possible also to estimate the deposition rate per surface area of some heavy metals.
  • Pakarinen, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Mäkinen, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Ahti Mäkinen. Havaintoja tervaleppäkasvustoista vesijättömaalla.
English title: Observations on the alder growths on formerly water-covered land.
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  • Mäkinen, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
Rauno Ruuhijärvi, Tapio Lindholm, Heino Vänskä, Ahti Mäkinen. Soiden levästön tutkija ja luonnon inventoija on poissa – Väinö Hosiaisluoma 1934–2016.
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  • Ruuhijärvi, Sähköposti: (sähköposti)
  • Lindholm, Suomen ympäristökeskus (SYKE), Suojelualueverkostot Sähköposti:
  • Vänskä, Sähköposti:
  • Mäkinen, Sähköposti:

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