Suo - Mires and peat vol. 59 no. 3 | 2008

Klaus Silfverberg, Mikko Moilanen. PK-lannoituksen vaikutus männyn ravinnetilaan Pohjois-Pohjanmaan ojitusalueilla.
English title: Long-term nutrient status of PK fertilized Scots pine stands on drained peatlands in North-Central Finland.
Avainsanat: fertilization; peatland; site type; needle analysis; nutrient deficiencies
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The low availability of usable phosphorus (P), as well as the scarcity of potassium (K), are often limiting tree growth on peatlands. Approximately one third of the 5.5 million ha of peatlands drained for forestry in Finland has been fertilized during the last 50 years. The aim of this study was to determine the long-term effect of PK fertilization on the nutrient status of Scots pine on different site types of drained peatlands. Changes in nutrient concentrations (N, P, K) and dry mass of current needles was used for examining the effect of fertilization. The material included 82 fertilization experimental stands comprising a total of 892 needle samples; 434 from PK-fertilized and 458 from unfertilized control stands. The needles were collected and analyzed between 1980 and 2002. Depending on the experiment, a time period of 1–35 years had elapsed between fertilization and needle sampling. More than half (54%) of the control stands had P concentration below the defi ciency limit 1.3 mg g–1, and correspondingly, 48% had K concentration below 4.0 mg g–1. Fertilization increased considerably the needle dry mass and foliar P and K concentration raised above the deficiency limits. The lower the concentrations of foliar P and K and the higher the concentration of N were in control trees, the more pronounced the effect of PK fertilization was. Compared to control, the needle P concentration was still noticeably higher on the fertilized stands after 21–35 years of the fertilization. However, K concentration had decreased and was at the same level as in the control trees. The effect of fertilization was strongest on sites which had been treeless or sparsely forested before drainage and which had severe nutrient shortages or imbalances. The response to fertilization was very similar regardless of the temperature sum of the year the needles first appeared. The results of this study show that the P status of Scots pine could be improved for over 30 years with single fertilization. On the other hand, ensuring the K status will require 1–2 refertilization treatments during the rotation period.
  • Silfverberg, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Vantaa Research Unit, P.O. Box 18, FI-01301 Vantaa Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Moilanen, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo
Markku Mäkilä, Tomasz Goslar. Etelä- ja keskiboreaalisten soiden pintakerroksen hiilidynamiikka.
English title: The carbon dynamics of surface peat layers in southern and central boreal mires of Finland and Russian Karelia.
Avainsanat: Finland; peatland; Acrotelm; peat accumulation; carbon pool; turnover
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The carbon pool of surface layers (up to 500 years old) in 73 boreal mires was investigated in order to assess its significance in the carbon cycle. Peat columns were collected from mires of varying depth, age and degree of natural state in the aapa mire and raised bog regions and coastal mires of southern and central Finland and Russian Karelia. The quantities of carbon sequestered during recent centuries and over the entire lifetimes of the mires were determined using a total of 367 dates (186 14C AMS and 181 conventional dates) and age-depth models derived from bulk density measurements. Particular attention was paid to accumulation over the last 100 and 300 years, as these periods encompass the best estimates of the acrotelm age across the range of sites investigated. The average carbon pool of layers younger than 300 years was determined as 101 ± 8 tonnes ha-1 in the aapa mire region, 115 ± 9 tonnes ha-1 in the raised bog region and 184 ± 20 tonnes ha-1 in coastal mires. Overall, the mean carbon pool of layers younger than 300 years was calculated to be 121 ± 7 tonnes ha-1 (range 44–259 tonnes ha-1) and of layers younger than 100 years 63 ± 4 tonnes ha-1 (range 17–141 tonnes ha-1). The size and dynamics of the carbon pool represented by these surface layers depends upon the mire site type, vegetation and natural state; variations reflect differences in plant communities as well as factors that affect biomass production and decay rates. The high carbon accumulation in surface layers is temporary and mainly related to the development of the mire. The surface layers are still undergoing a rapid carbon cycle. A relatively rapid accumulation and turnover of carbon is taking place in surface layers (<300 years) in the same way as in a growing forest. Therefore, this "pre-peat" in the surface layers of mires should be distinguished as a separate class from the peat underneath. Our results indicate how important it is to understand the carbon accumulation rates of surface layers and the long-term dynamics of mire carbon accumulation in order to set the current flux estimates in perspective.
  • Mäkilä, Geological Survey of Finland, P.O. Box, 96, 02151 Espoo, Finland Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo (sähköposti)
  • Goslar, Sähköposti: ei.tietoa@nn.oo

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